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13 votes
Accepted

Why isn't there more concern of Ethereum reaching 1TB? Should we be worried?

You don't need to have lots of full client nodes. Nowadays you can download the light-client version, which implementing Merkle Tree structures, lets nodes to don't be obligated to store ALL of the ...
CPereez19's user avatar
  • 2,835
8 votes

Can a smart contract be validated only by a specific selected node

Its kind of what Casper is trying to do with its sharding scheme. The high level idea is to split the network into several groups, and a group of nodes will be responsible for verifying some set of ...
Loi.Luu's user avatar
  • 2,113
7 votes

Difference between Sharding and Plasma

The first phase implementation of sharding and Plasma are both essentially sidechains that tie into the main chain via smart contracts. However, the responsibilities of these smart contracts and ...
Ed Posnak's user avatar
  • 171
6 votes
Accepted

Why does Ethereum 2.0 aim for 64 shards?

Considering the following, I guess the reasons are mostly based on performance and scalability. The number of shards was redefined based on this proposal, which drastically simplifies communication ...
alberto's user avatar
  • 3,343
5 votes

Why isn't there more concern of Ethereum reaching 1TB? Should we be worried?

Someday the Ethereum blockchain will hit 1TB, but it won't be soon. I've been installing full mining and non-mining nodes with geth with "fast" disabled. A fresh install of the blockchain fits nicely ...
Ether Dude's user avatar
4 votes

Could blockchain be distributed over torrent (DHT)?

Could blockchain be distributed over torrent (DHT)? Possibly, but... ...so that every node would not need to store whole blockchain... ? What you're essentially describing is sharding, which is ...
Richard Horrocks's user avatar
4 votes

Difference between Sharding and Plasma

The above answer is outdated on sharding, notaries are used instead of validators. See https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Sharding-FAQ#how-does-plasma-state-channels-and-other-layer-2-technologies-...
James Ray's user avatar
  • 450
4 votes

Why ETH gas fee is still expensive >$5 - $10 after sharding + POS?

Currently sharding is not implemented in Ethereum and there isn't a complete plan to implement sharding yet. None of the current production nodes have any sharding support There is no clear ...
Mikko Ohtamaa's user avatar
3 votes

Ethereum's State sharding vs Zilliqa's Network Sharding

This question is extremely broad. Why don't you take the time to read these two sharding designs and post your findings? Ziliqa uses proof of work. Ethereum 2.0 uses Casper Proof of Stake, see https:/...
James Ray's user avatar
  • 450
3 votes
Accepted

Will sharding allow for a much lower gas limit?

Sure, assuming total tx's stay the same, then it will be something like current gas price / shards. I would assume that total tx's will increase however, when sharding goes into effect. But yes, ...
Alex's user avatar
  • 789
3 votes
Accepted

What are the differences between Truebit and sharding

They solve different problems and can be both used together. Truebit is about outsourcing heavy computations. For example a simulation may require thousands of hours of computing. You only need in ...
Ismael's user avatar
  • 30.4k
3 votes
Accepted

ethereum 2.0 sharding, how does data travel around from one shard to the other

I was reading this a few weeks ago: https://ethos.dev/beacon-chain/ . It explains everything you need to know and a lot more. To be honest the article got way too deep for me and I didn't manage to ...
Lauri Peltonen's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

How does a shard slot proposer have anything to propose?

This is an area that has changed and continues to change in the spec. The original idea was that shards would be executable and have their own state. Transactions on shards could be valid or invalid ...
benjaminion's user avatar
  • 9,307
3 votes
Accepted

Is sharding already working in Ethereum?

Currently sharding is not implemented in Ethereum None of the current production nodes have any sharding support There is no clear technical plan how to implement sharding Blockchains that support ...
Mikko Ohtamaa's user avatar
2 votes

In an Ethereum 2.0 with sharding, do shards produce their own blocks?

Hypercube is no longer planned to be implemented. But yes, each shard produces their own blocks, although the latest plans is to call them collations, which are planned to occur more frequently than ...
James Ray's user avatar
  • 450
2 votes

Could blockchain be distributed over torrent (DHT)?

Additionally, for planned innovations on storage, see: I think we want to use sparse merkle trees https://ethresear.ch/t/data-availability-proof-friendly-state-tree-transitions/1453/6 ...
James Ray's user avatar
  • 450
2 votes
Accepted

Is the mauve paper still actual?

The mauve paper has been deprecated for about 2 years. Yes, refer to the FAQs that you mentioned, with https://notes.ethereum.org/SCIg8AH5SA-O4C1G1LYZHQ# being the latest WIP development for shasper (...
James Ray's user avatar
  • 450
2 votes

ELI5 what are erasure codes?

ELI5: You have 2 numbers, X and Y, each in an envelope. In a 3rd envelope, you store X+Y. This 3rd envelope can be considered the erasure code. You will always be able to compute X and Y by only ...
eth's user avatar
  • 86.2k
2 votes
Accepted

Will the introduction of sharding have an effect on the functionality of currently deployed smart contracts or the EVM?

Phase 1 sharding won't have any execution or EVM, so it won't integrate with the main net. Phase 2 will have an EVM, and will introduce backwards incompatible changes at a smart contract level, like ...
James Ray's user avatar
  • 450
2 votes

Ethereum 2.0 - Isn't there a risk that Shards will be abandoned by Miners?

The tl;dr is that no, validators can't choose which shards they validate. Validators are shuffled around between shards every 10 minutes or so and are randomly assigned a few shards at a time. The ...
natewelch_'s user avatar
  • 12.2k
2 votes
Accepted

Beacon chain validators vs. Shard validators

A Beacon Chain validator can also be a shard validator. Recall, that initially there won't be any shards. State of Ethereum Protocol #2: The Beacon Chain is a helpful article on these topics and ...
eth's user avatar
  • 86.2k
2 votes

Why in sharded chain, a validator in shard "A" cannot verify correctness of historical transactions in shard "B"?

A validator in ShardA cannot download and validate all of ShardB because the validator already has too many shards. The main scalability problem with blockchains is that all validators have to ...
eth's user avatar
  • 86.2k
2 votes

What if a malicious validator denies to sign a new block in a shard committee in Ethereum 2.0?

https://ethos.dev/beacon-chain/ Validators are rewarded when they make attestations (LMD GHOST and FFG votes) that the majority of other validators agree with. ... Validators are penalized ...
Newti's user avatar
  • 365
2 votes
Accepted

Fork Choice Rule in Ethereum 2.0?

The fork choice rule in Ethereum 2.0 is called LMD GHOST. The basic answer to the question is branch 2: the branch with the most attestations/votes. There are many other details to the fork choice. ...
eth's user avatar
  • 86.2k
2 votes

How to adjust "time slots" in Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding + PoS)?

As far as I understand the time slots are static: 12 seconds per slot and 32 slots per epoch: 6,4 minutes per epoch. So it should not change. It doesn't matter if there are transactions or not, empty ...
Lauri Peltonen's user avatar
2 votes

Likelihood of malicious nodes in a shard

The shard committee is designed to have a minimal number of required members so that the chance of getting a majority of malicious nodes in a shard is so small. I happened to write an article before, ...
user2754799's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

How will transactions be assigned to a shards in Ethereum PoS?

With rollups, the focus has shifted to sharding data, rather than sharding execution: https://ethereum-magicians.org/t/a-rollup-centric-ethereum-roadmap : sharding data availability is much safer ...
eth's user avatar
  • 86.2k
2 votes

Is sharding already working in Ethereum?

No, sharding has not been implemented in Ethereum resources: Ethereum's official website: https://ethereum.org This website will provide you an introduction to Ethereum 2.0, including details on ...
Naveed Ali's user avatar
1 vote

Ethereum 2.0 - Isn't there a risk that Shards will be abandoned by Miners?

Disclaimer: Not an expert here. I think we can assume you can collect more block producer and transaction fees on a chain no one else is o. Thus as long as there are transactions to validate and they ...
Mikko Ohtamaa's user avatar
1 vote

Is the requirement for signature of more than 2/3 of validators, weighted by deposit, a solution for the data availability problem?

Yes, because a general proof of stake scheme with your only stated requirement being to collect signatures of at least 2/3 of validators, weighted by deposit (my edit, otherwise you could have 4,000 ...
James Ray's user avatar
  • 450

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