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8 votes
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What does the beacon chain deposit contract ceremony entail?

I'll have a go at answering this by producing a response that has a different structure to the question but should tick-off all the necessary points along the way. Hopefully I didn't miss any. ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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5 votes

What's the difference between a Slot and a Block?

I recommend the linked article for an overview of the beacon chain. The following is basically paraphrased from there: Slots are twelve-second periods of time where blocks can be added to the beacon ...
The Renaissance's user avatar
5 votes

Post-merge network, but no beacon client seen. Please launch one to follow the chain!

The Goerli network has now passed the Merge fork. In order to run a full node on Goerli, you need both an execution client like Geth and a consensus client like Prysm, Lighthouse, Nimbus, Teku or ...
Rémy Roy's user avatar
  • 703
3 votes

Public Keys vs Addresses on ETH2 Beacon Chain

Eth1 addresses are just (truncated) hashes of their public keys. We could also do that with validators, but it doesn't gain anything and would actually make debugging harder since validators are ...
benjaminion's user avatar
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3 votes
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What is the maximum number of validators in Ethereum?

The maximum number of validators in Ethereum depends on the total supply of Ethereum. Each validator needs to stake 32 ether (ETH). If there's around 100M ether staked, that would be 3M validators. ...
eth's user avatar
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3 votes
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What exactly is the content of blocks on the beacon chain?

Yes, beacon blocks after The Merge (when Proof of Stake replaces Proof of Work) will contain transactions. Beacon blocks, up to and including Altair, have the following per https://eth2book.info/...
eth's user avatar
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3 votes
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Is the recent beacon block the state of the beacon chain?

The contents of the Beacon Chain is primarily a registry of validator addresses, the state of each validator, attestations, and links to shards Here the author is most probably talking about the ...
hroussille's user avatar
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3 votes

How to run slasher slashing detectors in Ethereum 2.0?

There’s a difference between slashing detection and slashing prevention. Detection requires storing significant amounts of data but prevention only requires quite a small amount of storage. I’m not ...
ajsutton's user avatar
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3 votes

What is the difference between Ethereum 2.0 and the beacon chain?

Ethereum 2.0 consists of multiple phases. Phase 0 is the beacon-chain (with proof-of-stake). Phase 1 is sharding. The beacon chain is expected 2020-2021. Shards are targeted 2021-2022 (although ...
eth's user avatar
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3 votes
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What are the Ethereum 2.0 testnets?

Ethereum 2.0 testnets can be categorized in different stages of testing, varying in their complexity of operation. semi-public devnets single-client testnets multi-client testnets semi-public ...
q9f's user avatar
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3 votes

How are block proposers selected in Ethereum 2.0?

if a proposer doesn't send a block during its slot, maintaining the same state, how is the next proposer selected? The same state isn't maintained, each slot has a different state. The ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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3 votes
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Liveness problem with Casper FFG?

If I'm understanding your example correctly, that's not exactly what a surrounding vote is. From the paper, a surrounding vote is: h(s1) < h(s2) < h(t2) < h(t1) This means that the source ...
natewelch_'s user avatar
3 votes
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How would a chain specification for a beacon chain look like?

Yep, they sure do! You can find a bunch of published specifications here: https://github.com/eth2-clients/eth2-testnets They are indeed based upon the "configs/ in the eth-2.0-spec" link you ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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3 votes
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PBS - How & where do block builders submit their blocks?

There is no proposer builder separation (PBS) right now on the beacon chain on Ethereum. After the merge, there still will not be any proposer builder separation built-in the protocol. Proposers, ...
Rémy Roy's user avatar
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3 votes
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Ethereum beacon chain node (Lighthouse) fails to connect to GoEthereum

Any beacon chain node needs Engine JSON-RPC API available it to co-ordinate between consensus layer (beacon chain) and execution layer (GoEthereum). Normally the Engine API is exposed over special ...
Mikko Ohtamaa's user avatar
3 votes
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Are transactions duplicated in both beacon chain and execution layer?

The Merge was the implementation of the Bellatrix consensus (layer) specs, the Paris execution (layer) specs, and the Engine API. Bellatrix: https://github.com/ethereum/consensus-specs/tree/dev/specs/...
eth's user avatar
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3 votes
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Does the balance of Beacon deposit contract address contain ETH2 staking rewards?

Okay, so I will go over each statement step by step. All the ETH for ETH2 staking are sent to the Beacon Deposit Contract address. Here just to make a small precision, when you talk about 'ETH2 ...
upavloff's user avatar
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3 votes
Accepted

Why are Ethereum slots 12 seconds?

Ethereum slots are 12 seconds to allow a balance between decentralization and finality time. Basically, all validators must be able to handle work/load/messages within the slot time. Shorter slot ...
eth's user avatar
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2 votes
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Beacon chain validators vs. Shard validators

A Beacon Chain validator can also be a shard validator. Recall, that initially there won't be any shards. State of Ethereum Protocol #2: The Beacon Chain is a helpful article on these topics and ...
eth's user avatar
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2 votes
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What is the purpose of the Zinken Ethereum 2.0 testnet?

Spadina and Zinken serve the entirely same purpose: practice a mainnet launch. They are literally called "dress rehearsal" testnets. The reason we launch Zinken right after Spadina is that ...
q9f's user avatar
  • 32.9k
2 votes

How to run slasher slashing detectors in Ethereum 2.0?

The Prysm team implemented a slasher as a separate process. Official documentation on how to run a slasher: https://docs.prylabs.network/docs/prysm-usage/slasher
Kapol's user avatar
  • 149
2 votes
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What does "participation rate" mean in the context of ETH2?

The participation rate is the percentage of validators that are online and performing their duties. The following is a simplified example for the rest of this answer. If the validator set is 1,000 ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.8k
2 votes
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How will transactions be assigned to a shards in Ethereum PoS?

With rollups, the focus has shifted to sharding data, rather than sharding execution: https://ethereum-magicians.org/t/a-rollup-centric-ethereum-roadmap : sharding data availability is much safer ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.8k
2 votes

What does attest to the head of the beacon chain mean

Does the head of the beacon chain mean the latest block on the beacon chain? "The head of the beacon chain" is officially defined as the result of running the get_head function. The ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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2 votes
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What is the aggregation_bits in beacon chain's Attestation?

First, I suggest you to look the annotated specs of Vitalik and Ben Edgington when you search for some info on the code. For instance, for the aggregation bit, Ben explains: This is the form in which ...
upavloff's user avatar
  • 1,100
2 votes
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Accessing state of Beacon Chain in a solidity smart contract

Solidity smart contracts can only access the Ethereum Virtual Machine state. The beacon chain (consensus layer) is not part of the EVM chain (execution layer). Some information might be available from ...
Mikko Ohtamaa's user avatar
1 vote

What is the difference between Votes and Attestations?

According to my understanding votes are part of attestations. If you go to any beacon chain explorer you can see that, the no. of attestations is 128, irrespective of the no. of votes. This is because ...
Advaita Saha's user avatar
1 vote

How does ethereum store the 300k validator addresses

If you want to use a block explorer, you can see validators as those with valid deposits to the deposit contract. There's over a billion transactions on the chain so the number of validators is tiny ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.8k
1 vote

Checking if merge has happened in smart contract

I would say that one way would be to look the difficulty bomb. It is not 100% reliable, but the merge will occur once the PoW on the execution layer reach the TERMINAL_TOTAL_DIFFICULTY (see https://...
upavloff's user avatar
  • 1,100
1 vote
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How can there be a fork if only one validator is allowed to propose a block per slot?

I am failing to see how there can be a fork, if only one validator is selected during a slot to propose a block. Ignoring slashable offenses (i.e., producing two conflicting blocks at the same slot), ...
paulhauner's user avatar
  • 1,248

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