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6 votes

Does Ethereum 2.0 still have use cases for oracles, why?

The basic ideas of blockchain remains the same in Ethereum 2.0; one of the basic concepts is they are deterministic. For our purposes that means that external data needs to be input into the ...
Lauri Peltonen's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

DoS when a contract with too much storage is SELFDESTRUCT-ed?

It's a fairly complex question, but here it goes: First up. With the Dencun update, SELFDESTRUCT was removed, specifically because it was a thorny opcode from various points of view. So on Ethereum ...
Péter Szilágyi's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Why some validator have 2x32eth deposit?

Yes this is likely a user mistake (due to a technical error or misunderstanding the instructions) as you only get rewards on the first 32 ETH of the validator. The extra ethers are stucked until ...
clement's user avatar
  • 4,312
4 votes
Accepted

What is the maximum number of validators in Ethereum?

The maximum number of validators in Ethereum depends on the total supply of Ethereum. Each validator needs to stake 32 ether (ETH). If there's around 100M ether staked, that would be 3M validators. ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.9k
4 votes

Where did the number of 32 Eth to become a validator come from?

The short answer is: The 32 ETH stake size is a trade-off between network overhead, number of validators, and time to finality. As for the long answer, I will try to sum up the explanations from Ben ...
upavloff's user avatar
  • 1,110
4 votes

Extract rewards address for validators

You might be confusing things between execution layer rewards and consensus layer rewards. The withdrawal credential used by Lido is pointing all the withdrawals to ...
mortimr's user avatar
  • 91
3 votes
Accepted

PBS - How & where do block builders submit their blocks?

There is no proposer builder separation (PBS) right now on the beacon chain on Ethereum. After the merge, there still will not be any proposer builder separation built-in the protocol. Proposers, ...
Rémy Roy's user avatar
  • 703
3 votes
Accepted

How common is it to go below a balance of 32 ether in PoS?

It is very uncommon for a validator's balance to go under 32 ETH with the Ethereum beacon chain and PoS. You can check on the beaconcha.in website. If you exclude validators that have not completed ...
Rémy Roy's user avatar
  • 703
3 votes

Public Keys vs Addresses on ETH2 Beacon Chain

Eth1 addresses are just (truncated) hashes of their public keys. We could also do that with validators, but it doesn't gain anything and would actually make debugging harder since validators are ...
benjaminion's user avatar
  • 9,297
3 votes
Accepted

How does a shard slot proposer have anything to propose?

This is an area that has changed and continues to change in the spec. The original idea was that shards would be executable and have their own state. Transactions on shards could be valid or invalid ...
benjaminion's user avatar
  • 9,297
3 votes
Accepted

Why are there between 64 and 128 attestations every slot if there's only 64 committees?

In attestation #6, validator 58027 voted for block 0xd200f8... as the head. In attestation #68 the rest of the committee voted for 0x8eca26... as the head. Since 0xd200f8... is the parent of 0x8eca26.....
benjaminion's user avatar
  • 9,297
3 votes
Accepted

How are blocks actually added to the blockchain in Eth2

I will answer sunccintly your questions before an overview of the actual functioning. What does proposing a block mean in eth2? Is this basically the act of putting transactions into the next block? ...
upavloff's user avatar
  • 1,110
3 votes

Why is the base fee burned instead of sent to validators?

Why is the base fee burned? EIP-1559 offers a solid explanation (bold added): This ensures that only ETH can ever be used to pay for transactions on Ethereum, cementing the economic value of ETH ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.9k
2 votes

How does eth2 Random Election Work?

Validators are not randomly selected, anyone/thing with 32 ETH is eligible to become an Eth2 validator. However, once a validator (represented by a BLS public key) becomes active, they are randomly ...
paulhauner's user avatar
  • 1,248
2 votes
Accepted

How will one stake Ether?

After moving to Casper POS, To become a validator (mine new ethers) you will need locking up an amount of your ethers (to be bonded) by sending them to the Casper contract. If i remember they will ...
Badr Bellaj's user avatar
  • 18.8k
2 votes

Why are there between 64 and 128 attestations every slot if there's only 64 committees?

Per specification, there are 128 maximum attestations per block. For various reasons, not all slots have at least 64 attestations: for example slot 2 only has 19. But block proposers get more rewards ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.9k
2 votes
Accepted

How many validators can run with single Consensus client?

There is no hard limit to the number of validators you can run on a single machine. With any modern hardware, you can easily run hundreds if not thousands of validators. The additional resources usage ...
Rémy Roy's user avatar
  • 703
2 votes
Accepted

How to find which client is being used by a validator?

There is no direct way to find out which validator is running which client. Some validators will use the default graffiti from their client and that graffiti will include the name of the client. You ...
Rémy Roy's user avatar
  • 703
2 votes
Accepted

What is the aggregation_bits in beacon chain's Attestation?

First, I suggest you to look the annotated specs of Vitalik and Ben Edgington when you search for some info on the code. For instance, for the aggregation bit, Ben explains: This is the form in which ...
upavloff's user avatar
  • 1,110
2 votes

What is the current system requirements to be an Ethereum Validator node?

As of 9/2022: Recommended hardware requirements to run a Full node: A fast CPU with 4+ cores 16 GB+ of RAM A fast SSD drive with at least 1 TB of space (storage capacity will grow over time) 25 MBit/...
Yongjian P.'s user avatar
  • 4,208
2 votes

Limitations of block proposal tips paid to Validator's fee recipient?

Builder tips you're talking about aren't received via a transaction that calls the recipient. They are just added to the balance of the fee recipient address when the block is created, your fallback/...
natewelch_'s user avatar
  • 12.1k
2 votes
Accepted

Is it possible to add a fake transaction or tamper a transaction

If a block is invalid (contains invalid transactions, wrong state transition, etc.), then other nodes wont even accept it. Nodes run all the blocks they receive, and if a proposer proposed a false ...
natewelch_'s user avatar
  • 12.1k
2 votes

What are the events that mint new ETH?

In Ethereum's proof-of-stake (POS) consensus mechanism, new ETH is minted through the process of block validation, also known as staking. Validators, also known as stakers, are chosen to create new ...
VX3's user avatar
  • 666
2 votes
Accepted

What happens when a validator's withdrawal address is a smart contract with a fallback function?

If a validator do that the rewards are indeed sent to that smart contract but the process of validator sweeping does not interact with the contract's fallback function. The rewards are just directly ...
Saxtheowl's user avatar
  • 668
2 votes

What happens when a validator's withdrawal address is a smart contract with a fallback function?

EIP-4895 has a couple explanations to @Saxtheowl's good answer. Why only balance updates? No general EVM execution? More general processing introduces the risk of failures, which complicates ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.9k
2 votes

How to add new validators on ethereum private network?

Adding new validators to an Ethereum private network involves a few steps. Since you're using Geth and Prysm, I'll guide you through the process: 1 - Generate Keystore and Deposit Data Files: You've ...
brunovjk's user avatar
  • 115
2 votes
Accepted

Is the ether rewarded specified by the Ethereum client?

the amount of Ether or Wei that a validator or miner is rewarded is determined by the Ethereum protocol and is not specified by the Ethereum client itself. The Ethereum protocol includes rules for ...
Canard Coca's user avatar
2 votes

Does each validator have equal voting right in a committee?

Yes, all attestations (votes) by validators are equal. Each validator needs a deposit of 32 ETH. There is little benefit to depositing more than 32 ETH for 1 validator. For example, if you have 64 ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.9k
2 votes
Accepted

Proposer vs Aggregator rewards - who gets penalized?

Aggregators are not directly incentivised to do their work. There are, however, two weak indirect incentives for trying to produce good aggregate attestations and get them into blocks. The first is ...
benjaminion's user avatar
  • 9,297
1 vote

Does being an ethereum validator post-merge require me to have a computer on running core Ethereum?

If you're a validator post-merge, you do need to have a computer running and nodes connected to the blockchain at all times. Therefore, a good internet connection is a must-have. Offline validator ...
Yongjian P.'s user avatar
  • 4,208

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