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17 votes
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What is SSZ SimpleSerialize and why was it developed?

SimpleSerialize (SSZ) is the canonical serialization format used in Eth2. The SSZ specification instructs the reader on how to perform two distinct tasks: Encoding/Decoding: how to encode Eth2 data ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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8 votes
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What does the beacon chain deposit contract ceremony entail?

I'll have a go at answering this by producing a response that has a different structure to the question but should tick-off all the necessary points along the way. Hopefully I didn't miss any. ...
paulhauner's user avatar
  • 1,248
8 votes

Is there a penalty for having a ETH 2.0 Staking node go down?

Yes there are penalties for being offline. In "normal" (non-activity leak) circumstances, a validator loses approximately 15.8% of their stake per year they are offline. That's ~1.4% for being offline ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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6 votes
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What is the tech stack behind the Prysm client?

Raul Jordan here from the Prysm project. The Prysm client is an open source implementation of the Ethereum 2.0 blockchain written in Go, just as the familiar go-ethereum project was for Ethereum 1.0 ...
Raul Jordan's user avatar
6 votes
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Can I split the eth-deposit for running a eth2.0-validator to multiple transactions

My question is, is it possible to split this deposit to multiple transactions (e.g. 4x8ETH)? Yes, the smallest deposit you can make is 1 ETH1 and you can make as many as you like2. Validators are ...
paulhauner's user avatar
  • 1,248
6 votes

Does Ethereum 2.0 still have use cases for oracles, why?

The basic ideas of blockchain remains the same in Ethereum 2.0; one of the basic concepts is they are deterministic. For our purposes that means that external data needs to be input into the ...
Lauri Peltonen's user avatar
6 votes
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Why does Ethereum 2.0 aim for 64 shards?

Considering the following, I guess the reasons are mostly based on performance and scalability. The number of shards was redefined based on this proposal, which drastically simplifies communication ...
alberto's user avatar
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5 votes
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What is the tech stack behind the Teku client?

The recording is poor and it's a bit out of date now, but the this talk gives an intro to the Teku architecture: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PHZHpVPLk4 Generally the major components of ETH2 ...
ajsutton's user avatar
  • 221
5 votes
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How to stake ETH for Ethereum 2.0?

Ethereum 2.0 phase zero staking has been live since December 2020. Ethereum 2.0 rewards proof of stake validators with block production rewards. The amount of reward depends on the network ...
Mikko Ohtamaa's user avatar
4 votes

Does staking on ETH 2.0 require a full node and how much space would that take?

There's a little ambiguity around the term "full node" here. In order to be an Eth2 validator, you require the following software components: An eth1 node (geth, parity-ethereum, etc). An ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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4 votes
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What caused the forks in the Schlesi testnet?

What were the causes of the forks? There were some issues relating to rewards/penalties calculation. Both Lighthouse and Prysm were incorrectly computing the validator balances. Interestingly, ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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4 votes

Will Ethereum 2.0 gas cost decrease?

As it sounds you do not need to interact with hashes from smart contracts, you could do something simpler. Ethereum blockchain that is designed for transfer-of-value is not good for store-of-hashes ...
Mikko Ohtamaa's user avatar
4 votes
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Will gas be free in ETH 2.0?

Gas will never be free. It has a purpose and that is to create a cost for a computation. If there was no cost for computation it would be possible to do infinite loops (with each loop being free) that ...
Zakoff's user avatar
  • 432
4 votes
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Why some validator have 2x32eth deposit?

Yes this is likely a user mistake (due to a technical error or misunderstanding the instructions) as you only get rewards on the first 32 ETH of the validator. The extra ethers are stucked until ...
clement's user avatar
  • 4,302
4 votes

Extract rewards address for validators

You might be confusing things between execution layer rewards and consensus layer rewards. The withdrawal credential used by Lido is pointing all the withdrawals to ...
mortimr's user avatar
  • 91
3 votes

How are block proposers selected in Ethereum 2.0?

if a proposer doesn't send a block during its slot, maintaining the same state, how is the next proposer selected? The same state isn't maintained, each slot has a different state. The ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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3 votes
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What is the tech stack behind the Lighthouse client?

What are Lighthouse's major components? From a very high level we have three components, each launched from the single lighthouse program: Beacon node: connects to the p2p network, verifies blocks ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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3 votes
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Does the expected average block time for Ethereum 2.0 will change much so that transaction confirmation times can reach sub-seconds on-chain?

The block time for the upcoming Ethereum 2.0 (Eth2) is set to 12 seconds. This includes the beacon chain and shard chains. This rate is defined in the Time parameters section of v0.11.1 of the Eth2 ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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3 votes
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What is an SSZ partial?

The idea of a SSZ partial is that any SSZ type (see SSZ spec what SSZ is) is just used to provide a typed "view": you have type information for everything that could be there, but you may only need ...
protolambda's user avatar
3 votes
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ethereum 2.0 sharding, how does data travel around from one shard to the other

I was reading this a few weeks ago: https://ethos.dev/beacon-chain/ . It explains everything you need to know and a lot more. To be honest the article got way too deep for me and I didn't manage to ...
Lauri Peltonen's user avatar
3 votes
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How would a chain specification for a beacon chain look like?

Yep, they sure do! You can find a bunch of published specifications here: https://github.com/eth2-clients/eth2-testnets They are indeed based upon the "configs/ in the eth-2.0-spec" link you ...
paulhauner's user avatar
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3 votes
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What should I prepare for the coming ETH 2.0 upgrade as a Dapps developer?

There is nothing to worry just yet. The casper protocol won't effect any smart contract much, it is just a new consensus protocol. I think the only thing that will effect is that they will use ...
haxerl's user avatar
  • 1,114
3 votes
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LibP2P v DevP2P

devp2p is the older network wire protocol, for propagating blocks and other low-level functionality between Ethereum nodes. It was designed specifically for Ethereum from scratch, in isolation from ...
Paul Pham's user avatar
  • 638
3 votes
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Is Casper FFG still going to be implemented?

Yes, Casper FFG will be implemented in Eth2 phase 0. Most Eth2 client teams have already implemented the Eth2 variant of FFG and all public Eth2 testnets are using it. Some recent information about ...
paulhauner's user avatar
  • 1,248
3 votes
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What happens to immutable contracts when Ethereum 2.0 will likely change the 15s block time?

The 15s block time is false assumption, making your question invalid. Ethereum was ticking 12s block times 2 years ago. It is not standard and fluctuates a lot of over longer period of time. You ...
Mikko Ohtamaa's user avatar
3 votes

How to deploy Smart Contract on Ethereum 2.0

The Eth 2.0 testnet is only the beacon chain. It doesn't yet support smart contracts.
natewelch_'s user avatar
3 votes

What is the difference between Ethereum 2.0 and the beacon chain?

Ethereum 2.0 consists of multiple phases. Phase 0 is the beacon-chain (with proof-of-stake). Phase 1 is sharding. The beacon chain is expected 2020-2021. Shards are targeted 2021-2022 (although ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.8k
3 votes
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What are the Ethereum 2.0 testnets?

Ethereum 2.0 testnets can be categorized in different stages of testing, varying in their complexity of operation. semi-public devnets single-client testnets multi-client testnets semi-public ...
q9f's user avatar
  • 32.9k
3 votes
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On Ethereum 2.0 PoS, how/when are new coins minted?

According to the official Ethereum 2.0 Validator FAQ, the beacon chain mints fresh ETH as rewards by updating the balance of each PoS validator after every epoch: How are rewards/penalties issued? ...
Maximillian Laumeister's user avatar
3 votes

ETH 2 random election attack vectors?

I am not sure I understand the question, but Eth 2 works this way : during an epoch n, each proposer signs some predetermined verifiable value which will produce a randao reveal (see here). The XOR of ...
upavloff's user avatar
  • 1,100

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