Questions tagged [eth-2.0]

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Do any clients provide separate Beacon nodes and Validator clients?

According to EthHub, these re the list of "eth 2.0" clients: Teku Harmony Lighthouse Lodestar Nimbus Prysm Shasper Trinity Nethermind Yeeth My question is: what is the difference between ...
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How is ethereum updated?

I've been reading up on crypto recently, and saw that ethereum is going to change to pos in the future. I imagine that this entails all miners downloading an updated mining client? However, two things:...
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Ethereum 2.0: supermajority, stake distribution among validators

I am studying how the Ethereum 2.0 version works. I have read the official documentation and in particular this. According to the information I found here, the maximum number of validators allowed is ...
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How to migrate a Private Chain to POS

I run a POW private chain and would like to update it to POS. Does anyone have already performed such migration? Should I mimick the different phases (0,1,1.5 and 2) or it is possible to apply the ...
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What is the aggregation_bits in beacon chain's Attestation?

The beacon chains Attestation data structure has an aggregation_bits class Attestation(Container): aggregation_bits: Bitlist[MAX_VALIDATORS_PER_COMMITTEE] data: AttestationData signature: ...
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Checking if merge has happened in smart contract

Is it possible to check whether or not the merge has happened using a smart contract? Preferably completely on-chain, but some trustworthy decentralized oracle that tells me could work too.
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Ethereum 2.0 - can 32 ether staking limit become lesser?

As we all know, there is a 32 ether requirement to become a full validator for the incoming PoS update. For now, the ethereum 2.0 is still in experimental stage and there is a lot of work to perform ...
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Questions about the Executable Beacon Chain Proposal

I am reading the executable beacon chain proposal here, and I have a couple of questions and I would appreciate if someone more versed in the Ethereum technology stack can help answer. I reproduce the ...
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Most efficient way to fetch daily rewards of a validator from Beacon API

I'm trying to fetch the daily rewards of a validator using the beacon API. The only way I'm able to do it now is by fetching the balance at each epoch within these days and summing it up, and then ...
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Can a contract be the Ethereum 2.0 validator balance owner?

As we know it's not that easy to become a validator because it requires to have 32 ether. There are bypasses for lesser balance owners like staking on various websites or exchanges who can compound ...
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How are updates rolled out?

if an update to Ethereum or any other cryptocurrency is rolled out, how to ensure that everyone in the network is running the same 'version'. Especially if the update is not backward-compatible with ...
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Is ETH 2.0 going to have many L2 layers running with it?

Is it true that ETH 2.0 will just have many L2 layers running with it, such as Polygon, so ETH 2.0 needs these L2 layers These L2 layers are not going to go away just because of ETH 2.0 rolling out ?...
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Elliptic curves for eth2 keys and addresses

It appears that eth2 will use the BLS curve for at least some keys instead of secp256k1 which is used for eth1. And in eth2 there are both validator keys and account keys. My question is what curve ...
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How can Ethereum's supply shrink 2% in the future if most holders just hold onto them?

It is commonly said that Ethereum supply will shrink about 2% per year going towards ETH 2.0. However, if most people holding it only stake them, and get additional ETH as reward, and don't spend gas ...
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How much Ethereum would we get per year when we go into purely Proof of Stake?

Let's say, if a person is holding 32 Ethereum and stake them all, in a year, how many ETH will it become altogether?
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Is Finality Gadget a seperate concept

I have seen Casper FFG described as a "finality gadget". For example here: Casper FFG is a “finality gadget”, meaning that it describes the rules for finality of blocks, and detects the ...
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How can there be a fork if only one validator is allowed to propose a block per slot?

As I understand it, one and only one validator get selected to propose the next block on the beacon chain. This means that the other validator attesting can only attest to one block right? (since ...
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What happens when a validator earns more than their staked 32 ETH?

What happens when a validator earns back more than their staked 32 ETH? The "nothing at stake" situation kicks in then...no? And it becomes cheaper for a validator to misbehave. Or will they ...
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Will Beacon node end up supporting smart contracts?

I am aware that part of the PoS migration is the Phase 2, which will introduce the Smart Contract Execution. What is not clear though is if beacon nodes would be expanded to support smart contract ...
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Is the recent beacon block the state of the beacon chain?

I am reading this The Beacon Chain Ethereum 2.0 explainer you need to read first where it states: The contents of the Beacon Chain is primarily a registry of validator addresses, the state of each ...
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How will transactions be assigned to a shards in Ethereum PoS?

I understand that the plan is to have shards with Ethereum PoS. I am trying to have a mental picture of how that will work. Basically when a wallet signs a transaction, what determines which shard of ...
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Will there be two votes and two kinds of attestation in Ethereum 2.0?

I am reading this The Beacon Chain Ethereum 2.0 explainer you need to read first and I came across the following: Most of the time, validators are attesters that vote on beacon blocks and shard ...
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What is the rationale behind the content of a beacon chain's block?

In this question where I asked What exactly is the content of blocks on the beacon chain? I got pointed to the data structure representing the content of the beacon chain, which is: class ...
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What does attest to the head of the beacon chain mean

I am reading an overview of the beacon chain here and I came across this section I do not understand: Validators are split into “beacon committees” at each epoch (defined 1 epoch in advance to allow ...
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What exactly is the content of blocks on the beacon chain?

I am trying to wrap my head around how the POS ethereum will work and have so many questions. First one is basically about the beacon chain. What exactly would the blocks in the beacon chain contain? ...
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What if the unstaking time is shortened to several minutes?

I am wondering What if the unstaking time is shortened to several minutes? not several days or weeks? Is there any problem with it?
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Why does Ethereum 2.0 aim for 64 shards?

I was going through Ethereum 2.0 specs trying to look for an explanation for the number of shards (64) but I couldn't find any. For example here: Shard chains spread the network's load across 64 new ...
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How Ethereum 2.0 and sharding will apply to private Ethereum with PoA consensus (Clique)?

We're about to run the private Ethereum PoA chain based on Clique and thinking how would we support it for ages. Hence we're wondering: Whether Ethereum 2.0 updates (London, etc) are even applicable ...
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Who gets the staking rewards? All committee? Or only node that proposes a block?

In the new POS Ethereum 2.0, who gets the staking rewards? All committee that attested? Or only node that proposes a block?
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If Ethereum 2.0 won't reduce gas fees on mainnet, what will? [closed]

For much of 2021, people who buy and sell ERC-721s believed that Ethereum 2.0 would reduce gas costs, while knowing that the London Hard Fork that was released in summer would only help reduce gas ...
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How are blocks actually added to the blockchain in Eth2

I think I understand the general idea of how blocks get mined in proof of work based Ethereum. Basically validators puts transactions in a block, then they race to find the hash with a particular ...
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Are Ethereum 2.0 shards just disguised L2?

I've had talks with some colleagues of mine about Ethereum 2.0 shards, my problem is the following : Given the definition of sharding : sharding is a way of partitioning to spread out the ...
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How will the gas fee be allocated in ethereum 2.0?

Such as title, how will the gas fee be allocated to validator in ethereum 2.0? Will give it all to the block proposer? I don't see an explanation for this in the official documents. My idea is this: ...
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Number of Validator nodes on Eth2

How can I estimate the number of validator nodes that operate on Eth2? Often ~200k are reported but these can't be the actual number of nodes running, right? Probably just a lot of people pooling ...
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WBPC Old Token Sent to New Contract Wallet

DIGIFINEX one day just abruptly stops trading this coin i had purchased there for a company called Buy Pay (WBPC). I thought for sure I screwed up and got scammed because there weren’t any other ...
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2 answers
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Will ETH 2.0 affect the rate of return from providing liquidity?

A relatively simple question, but I am sure I'm missing details about the ETH 2.0 planned upgrades. Is there any reason to think that liquidity pool fees and the resulting APR/Y as a liquidity ...
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What are we waiting for to merge the Beacon chain with Mainnet?

What needs to happen before the Beacon chain merges with Mainnet? Is it Vitalik pushing a button? A certain contract that needs to reach a certain amount of staked Eth? Some amount of burned Eth? Or ...
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Eth2.0 and Eth1.0 contracts in the future

We are all waiting for the new eth. But I can't figure out if blockchains will be interoperable in the distant future? Imagine that I have created a TimeLockContract that will be exposed in 8 years. ...
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Eth 2.0. block rewards

I have found a few models presenting the issuance rate of ether and it becoming potentially deflationary. Yet, I can't seem to find any written explanations about how these are calculated. I am ...
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publishing blocks with delay

this is rather a simple and fundamental question but nevertheless i couldn't find any solution for it and now I'm worried if it can cause real attacks to slow blockchains. imagine in a form of ...
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Proof of History for Ethereum 2.0

After reading about the Solana-chain, I became convinced that "Proof of History" is a great idea for syncing a decentralized clock and improving scalability. Be aware that Solana is still a ...
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What happens if the slashing protection history/database is a little outdated?

When a machine (machine A) with a validator running on it is dying for some reason, I would start it on another machine (machine B). To avoid slashing, I have to copy the slashing protection history (...
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What can be expected in terms of gas prices for the next Ethereum iterations?

Starting Ethereum dev here full of dApp projects. My concern is fees. Most of my applications are unfeasible at the current gas prices. How could I sell a digital product that costs 10 dollars with a ...
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Deposited more than 32ETH into deposit contract. Anything to retrieve the 32 - additional eth deposited?

Good day, I have deposited accidently 64 ETH into the deposit contract twice (Same validator key provided by mistake). Is there anyway I can retrieve this additional ETH deposited? Or assign it to ...
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Ethereum validators for a shrad. How do they sync up?

Validators are maintained by the Beacon chain, and then they are PRNG'ed by RANDAO for a time period t. So every validator could be told to propose or attest any block from a shard. The thing is as ...
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4 votes
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Why some validator have 2x32eth deposit?

I see some validators on beaconcha.in, for instance 0xae0a59afa484054a4960ee3699d7e518d9273ff65bab932d3217f69770a48ddfbe646d970a422c88adcff8117ce30f47 that have 2x 32eth deposit. The max active stake ...
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2 votes
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How do I handle Fiat payments?

Is there a good method/way of handling Fiat money in my dapp? Is there anything like Stripe but for use on blockchain?
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food delivery dapp: handling driver sort algorithm over smart contract?

So I have a few apps- driver, customer and restaurant. I want to do randomized driver assignment (automatic) when customer places the order. Is this practical for a smart contract?
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ETH 2 random election attack vectors?

Since proof-of-stake algorithms (like ETH 2) use random sampling to choose the next validator to propose the next block, are there attack vectors with this random selection? It seems to use RANDAO, a ...
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Eth2 Client Teku missing proposals: MissingDepositsException

My Eth2 validator occasionally encounters a MissingDepositsException. For the second time now my validator missed a block proposal with the exception: tech.pegasys.teku.validator.coordinator....
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