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38 votes
Accepted

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem?

You don't lose anything from behaving badly, you lose nothing by signing each and every fork, your incentive is to sign everywhere because it doesn't cost you anything. So as it doesn't cost you ...
euri10's user avatar
  • 4,640
20 votes

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem?

tl;dr from Casper 101 [In proof of stake] if there’s a fork in the chain, the optimal strategy for any validator is to validate on every chain, so that the validator gets their reward regardless of ...
jonchoi's user avatar
  • 376
19 votes

How do miners profit post-PoS, if at all, how will new miners get their start, and who will execute the EVM byte code (and why)?

Miners will receive transaction fees, along with (potentially) a small block subsidy. GPUs will no longer be useful, and CPU/RAM will be useful in that stakers will need to have close to perfect ...
Tjaden Hess's user avatar
  • 37.1k
19 votes
Accepted

How many transactions per second can Ethereum currently handle? What changes will allow the network to be able to handle more?

I did the math to show the aprox tx/s: The block gas limit is 7,999,992 Transaction costs 21,000 gas (let's assume nothing else is attached) That's ~380 transactions per block With a block time of ...
CPereez19's user avatar
  • 2,835
12 votes

Will a higher stake make more money in PoS?

It's counterintuitive but PoS is fairer than PoW (as we know it). Economies of scale: a proportionate saving in costs gained by an increased level of production. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/...
Roland Kofler's user avatar
10 votes

How does the Casper proof of stake algorithm work?

https://gitter.im/ethereum/research is an open, highly technical channel where the most details about Casper can be obtained currently. Here are some background references that can help before ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.9k
10 votes
Accepted

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake?

In a naively implemented proof of stake, suppose that there is an attacker with 1% of all coins at or shortly after the genesis block. That attacker then starts their own chain, and starts mining it. ...
Gruff McGruff's user avatar
9 votes

How do miners profit post-PoS, if at all, how will new miners get their start, and who will execute the EVM byte code (and why)?

EDIT: This answer is a bit old. Now we know much more about PoS and validation details, but don't hesitate to ask new questions on a new thread. Also, meanwhile Golem Network appeared and is a pretty ...
Nicolas Massart's user avatar
7 votes

Can you (as a node) manually choose what block to bet on in Casper?

Yes and no. There's no way to enforce any given betting strategy in either PoS or PoW. For example, in PoW, there's no way to force miners to never mine on an attacker's chain. So, yes, a validator ...
Matthew Schmidt's user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

Casper-FFG vs Casper-GHOST-CBC

Here's a detailed post authored by an Ethereum researcher (with some bold added) https://medium.com/@jonchoi/ethereum-casper-101-7a851a4f1eb0 Casper FFG is what will be introduced in Ethereum first: ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.9k
6 votes
Accepted

Are light nodes possible in Casper?

My impression is that SPV nodes cannot be validator nodes for the reason you stated (proof that ETH is securing the chain requires knowledge of blockchain state). With Bitcoin and node can convert to ...
studycrypto's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Is it possible for Bitcoin to live on the Ethereum Blockchain?

Quoted from Vitalik Buterin on Reddit: (https://www.reddit.com/r/ethereum/comments/4d5z1y/is_it_possible_for_bitcoin_to_live_on_the/) "BTC -> ethereum convertibility can be done fine; the hard ...
George's user avatar
  • 414
5 votes

How are block proposals made in Casper?

There is precisely one validator with the right to create a block at any given height, randomly (but deterministically) chosen from the validators, weighted by their stakes. If that validator fails to ...
Matthew Schmidt's user avatar
5 votes

Understanding economic finality in PoW and PoS

Economic finality is a concept that is only used in the context of Proof of Stake, not Proof of Work (see the Vitalik quote further below). So, both "flavors" in the article you quoted above are just ...
Tesa's user avatar
  • 2,269
5 votes
Accepted

What logic controls Proof of Stake voting?

The proposed proof of stake algorithm isn't a winner-take-all affair. Different validators bet on the accepted block. The winning block is the one that receives the most votes; votes are weighted by ...
lungj's user avatar
  • 6,680
5 votes

How does the 'secret chain' catch up with the real chain in the long range attack?

As the author of the quoted article noted himself: Originally, I thought that this problem was fundamental, but in reality it’s an issue that can be worked around. One solution, for example, is ...
medvedev1088's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Casper, Serenity, Constantinople, Ethereum 2.0

Casper is the proof-of-stake protocol. There are two being developed, one by Vitalik Buterin and another by Vlad Zamfir. Vitalik's is known as Casper FFG. Vlad's is known Casper CBC. They are NOT ...
Bastien's user avatar
  • 376
4 votes
Accepted

What are the open issues with the Casper proof of stake algorithm?

March / April 2017 Update from Vitalik Buterin about Casper Relayed by Jim Manning in Eth News Still needing to get done: (1) Completing the code of the CASPER contract (3/4 done). The 25% ...
Tesa's user avatar
  • 2,269
4 votes
Accepted

When will Ethereum switch to Proof of Stake?

When it's (nearly) ready ! Ethereum is highly innovative, and developed in 'agile' mode. Even the content of the releases may be swapped or changed. So, that kind of product is released when the end ...
wiwulo's user avatar
  • 131
4 votes

Where can I get latest Ethereum2 information?

You can find Ideas in this gitter-channel for research: https://gitter.im/ethereum/research
ligi's user avatar
  • 1,183
4 votes

Ethereum POS economics question about gravitating all ether supply to stake

Technical limitations There are a few things that act together to prevent all ethers from being tied up in staking, or at least make it economically unattractive. The source for the info comes from ...
lungj's user avatar
  • 6,680
4 votes
Accepted

Plausible Liveness on Casper FFG

Rode this a few weeks ago. Let's try to explain it. Supermajority links are the way in which the checkpoints are related more efficiently, as you can see on the photo provided, on figure C, ...
CPereez19's user avatar
  • 2,835
4 votes

Official Update on Ethereum 2.0?

Ethereum is a decentralized network so nobody has the last word on what is "official". Vitalik may propose something and everyone may ignore it. The closest thing Ethereum has to an "official" ...
Edmund Edgar's user avatar
  • 16.9k
4 votes

Deliberate Slashing: Don't slashing and leaking incentivize DDOS attacks on smaller nodes? Won't this centralize POS more than POW, even?

This isn't a great question for Stack Exchange because you've buried a bunch of separate questions in the premises. Reddit would probably be better. But here goes. The penalty for being offline for a ...
Edmund Edgar's user avatar
  • 16.9k
3 votes
Accepted

When and if ETH converts to PoS who will receive the staking rewards?

I'm not an exchange and this is my gut feeling, for an precise answer I would ask your favorite exchange but : for an exchange to participate in the POS system it will have to put a deposit at risk ...
euri10's user avatar
  • 4,640
3 votes

Does more ether = more voting power in Casper?

You are correct assuming you (and other nodes betting on block beta) have a higher security deposit than the consensus betting on block alpha. As long as honest nodes outnumber the dishonest nodes, ...
dontmindme's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

What property makes Proof of Stake easier to apply in permissioned blockchains?

In a permissioned/private context, the validators have an additional layer of trust. Namely, that they have access to the blockchain in the first place. Bank A is unlikely to 51% attack Bank B, when ...
Matthew Schmidt's user avatar
3 votes

When will Ethereum switch to Proof of Stake so miners can plan to prepare themselves?

The switch to the Casper Proof of Stake protocol will happen in the Serenity release, and the latest information is from March 5 2016: The protocol decisions made here are by no means final; many ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.9k
3 votes

Is it possible for Bitcoin to live on the Ethereum Blockchain?

I'm not an expert. But you can implement any currency in Ethereum. So nothing prevents you to do so. However, everyone (at least every miner) would have to agree at some point and make a migration ...
BiS's user avatar
  • 533
3 votes
Accepted

How do Casper's validators compare to Dash's masternodes?

My main issue with Dash's masternodes is that they're so expensive to participate in. I know there are systems setup to pay for "shares" of a Dash masternode, but those are completely dependent on you ...
natewelch_'s user avatar
  • 12.1k

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