335

"Gas" is the name for a special unit used in Ethereum. It measures how much "work" an action or set of actions takes to perform: for example, to calculate one Keccak256 cryptographic hash it will take 30 gas each time a hash is calculated, plus a cost of 6 more gas for every 256 bits of data being hashed. Every operation that can be performed by a ...


46

The following response is taken from Ethereum, Gas, Fuel & Fees What is Gas? Gas is the metering unit for use of the Ethereum "World Computer". As an analogy, electricity is metered by kilowatt hours. Using more computation and storage in Ethereum means that more gas is used. One fundamental reason for metering is that it provides an incentive for ...


43

From reddit post 60 million + 12 million + 18million = ~90million 60 million - is the Pre-sale. 12 million - is the dev fund, 0.2coins per 1 coin sold in the crowdsale. ~18 million - 1 million coins mined per month for 18 months prior to going from POW to POS. Update #1: 91,018,773.78 (April 25, 2017). Update #2: 97,017,191.75 (Dec 13, 2017). Some ...


26

Poloniex has a pretty complete dataset available. Raw data as JSON here. Edit the timestamps in the API to get a different snapshot. Edit the period to adjust the details.


25

The issuance model is not fixed yet. It is an ongoing discussion whether or not the costs for the consensus needs to be financed by inflation that basically taxes every coin holder or if transaction fees are sufficient. Please note that the costs for secure consensus are much lower with Casper compared to current proof of work. More details here For this ...


17

The testnet can be reset any time by the Ethereum developers by issuing a new default genesis block. New testnet nodes would run automatically the new testnet. Therefore people do not build any business on it. Also miners prefer mainnet because of the potential reset, therefore testnet will always be insecure.


16

From StephanTaul on the Ethereum Forums on September, 2014: There is no maximum. 60,102,216 ethers were created during the sale, plus 2x pools of 9.9% each. 26% of 60,102,216 will be created through mining every year. This means that 15,626,576 will be created every year on top of the 60m and the two pools. After a while, 15,626,576 ether won't represent ...


13

Etherchain and Etherscan currently both allow you to download raw data for any of their charts.


13

Additional useful content on gas in Ethreum from: http://ethdocs.org/en/latest/ether.html#gas-and-ether Gas and ether Gas is supposed to be the constant cost of network resources/utilisation. You want the real cost of sending a transaction to always be the same, so you can’t really expect Gas to be issued, currencies in general are volatile. So instead, ...


12

I suspect that the question about the price discovery mechanism of gas/Ether was not studied very deeply by the Ethereum developers. The mechanism that currently exists must work by miners adaptively changing the lower bound of Ether per gas (asking price), and creators of transactions - offering certain prices and watching if the transactions get mined. ...


11

There are multiple questions in this, I'll try to address all your concerns... The cpu-power needed to run the smart contracts should in most cases be tiny compared to the cpu-power needed to generate a new block hash. Thats what the miner gets "paid" for, finding a new block hash, not executing the smart contracts. Yes, all operations and all data will be ...


11

Testnet ETH is practically infinite. The Morden genesis block allocates one address, 1.6e42 Ether. Some Ethereum developers know the private key to this and its primary use is for faucets. Here's the account and balance: accounts": { "102e61f5d8f9bc71d0ad4a084df4e65e05ce0e1c": { "balance": "1606938044258990275541962092341162602522202993782792835301376", "...


11

Through the coin: the miners are rewarded for their work on both confirming blocks and validating transactions, both of them being different. each person asking for a transaction is paying for it; note that if the Dapp developper wants to make it free for his user, he can do it, but then he has to pay for those transactions. this coins allows value transfer ...


10

EDIT: May 2021 The total supply of ether (ETH) will vary because EIP 1559 will burn ETH, and Proof of Stake replacing Proof of Work will reduce the amount of ETH created per block. If more ETH is burned than created, it would actually decrease the total supply of ETH. Justin Drake, Ethereum Researcher, discusses the supply in Modeling Ultra Sound Money. His ...


10

I understand where you're coming from, it's a popular situation, but fortunately you have several options. Firstly: Protect your work If your serious about it, then the very first step you should do is to copyright it. When people think of copyrighting they often think of some all-controlling mechanism that you buy to lock down your app so no one can touch ...


9

At the point of writing this the supply of ether is still "infinite". Every 15 seconds two new Ether are generated. Currently we are at 107,682,753.47 Ether. These are from: Genesis (60M Crowdsale 12M Other): 72,009,990.50 Ether Mining Block Rewards: 33,168,789.59 Ether Mining Uncle Rewards: 2,503,973.38 Ether The change to PoS got delayed a few times ...


9

There are several different ways to answer this question. For example, you could try to measure the percentage of the network that must misbehave in a malicious or "byzantine" manner before agreement among the "real users" breaks down. This type of approach, called fault tolerance analysis, is well-studied in computer science, and some important ...


8

Gas is basically the internal pricing for running a transaction or a contract. The gas price per transaction or contract is set up to deal with the Turing Complete nature of Ethereum and its EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine Code) So, the more complex the transaction or the operation, the more gas it would cost.


8

After the implementation of Casper, I believe the rate is expected to be fixed and miners will earn from both mining fees and fees offered up in other on-chain tokens or currencies/assets. However, as Casper is currently in development, everything can and will likely drastically change from here and actual implementation within one year.


7

There could be several possible ways: For Serenity version, there are plans to allow contracts themselves to pay for transactions, if, let's say, the owners of the contract monetise it indirectly. Something approximate can already be implemented now - contract can refund the caller because it knows the callers address (this, however, still requires some ...


5

Use the same formal analysis techniques that have been used in the literature for 25+ years. A good starting point for the conceptual basis of these systems is Paxos. Then, I would look at Raft, since its implementation is significantly easier to understand. Also it's vitally important that people researching in this space look at this paper, it seems to be ...


5

This question might be a bit off-topic and likely to result in unproductive debate, but maybe it's worth providing a couple references anyway. CAPM can't tell you the value of an equity. It tells you what rate of return investors will demand for a given amount of volatility; if you hold a risky asset, you can expect a higher rate of return over time, as ...


5

I think this question is out of scope for this stackexchange and voted to close it, but since it's still open... (note that the first several sections are greatly-simplified world-views and thus opinions; the last section is very subjective). N.B. that I do not possess a finance background and that for answering your question about intrinsic value, I'm using ...


4

Hate to be so blunt but I think you're very wrong. The RoI on on PoS is actually quite low, especially once mining rewards are eliminated. There will be so many people who want to stake but so little new ether to distribute (due to disinflation) that it will only be at best a modest source of income. The lion's share of the wealth will still go to people who ...


4

Assuming that the premise is valid (which I don't believe it is), the main reason why the extended conclusion is wrong is that this is a slippery slope fallacy: https://yourlogicalfallacyis.com/slippery-slope Specifically, the author states: Ethereum allows anyone to make a smart contract about anything. In other words, it has no ability to move ...


4

Technical limitations There are a few things that act together to prevent all ethers from being tied up in staking, or at least make it economically unattractive. The source for the info comes from here and here. However, I am adding my own interpretation and drawing additional inferences. There is a minimum amount of ether required to stake (1250 ether), ...


4

I can't see a question in your post, so it'll likely be closed as off-topic. Reddit would be a better place to invite discussion, which isn't what Stack Exchange is for. I'll respond to several of your points in the meantime, trying to remain as objective as possible. Yet, on the Ethereum wikipedia page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethereum, it says that ...


4

So a lot of these companies are separating the ERC 20 token being sold during the ICO process and their actually technology. Think of the ERC 20 token as contract to be exchange for the true currency when it is later developed. Let me respond to the specific examples you have given: EOS. The following is from an article on Bitfinex supporting the token ...


3

The key question isn't how many assets are tracked on the Ethereum blockchain. The key question is "what does an attacker have to gain by an attack?" In theory, the addition of more valuable assets to the chain will increase the demand for ether and raise its market valuation. Hopefully the owners of these assets will also purchase and hold some ether in ...


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