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A fork choice rule is a general term. For some history I've found, one of the early written descriptions of the term is from March 2017 https://medium.com/@VitalikButerin/minimal-slashing-conditions-20f0b500fc6c A fork choice rule is a function, evaluated by the client, that takes as input the set of blocks and other messages that have been produced, ...


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EV means expected value. It is the average you will receive if you repeat the experiment a large number of times. p=0.9 means if you choose that branch you have 90% probability of it being the correct one. The locking happens when you "vote". You can vote both alternatives. They analyze that case and propose possible solutions to prevent that behavior.


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It's true that PoS could lead to centralization and in a way encourages centralization - being a technical improvement over PoW in the context of energy use - PoS nodes run the same software with the same energy requirements regardless of the number of coins staked. I would like to point out firstly that blockchain attempted to take a centralized world and ...


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Someone who's been keeping up with the Ethereum 1.0, 1.X, 2.0 differences can correct me and supply more detail, but I believe at least in the 1.0/1.X world, it was decided to roll Proof of Stake (Casper) and Sharding into a single feature release, rather than release them separately. Clearly this is going to take a while to be feature-complete, so the ...


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