Questions tagged [casper]

Casper is a security-deposit based economic consensus protocol.

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Can we simplify Ethereum Proof-of-Stake?

I am wondering whether the protocol of Ethereum Proof-of-Stake could be simplified or not. It seems to me that a quick simplification can be made by noticing that an FFG vote is redundant once a GHOST ...
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How does Casper prevent validators from voting in two forks?

Starting with this question, I understand that validators can't vote for two blocks at the same height. But, could the validator alternate its votes between the two chains? For example, when the ...
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In PoS, can a validator only vote on blocks which descend from its "deposit block"?

I'm trying to get a hold of the Casper FFG paper and I suddenly realized I have a very basic question about validators in PoS. At any given time, the entire network has an active validator set. It is ...
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Is Finality Gadget a separate concept

I have seen Casper FFG described as a "finality gadget". For example here: Casper FFG is a “finality gadget”, meaning that it describes the rules for finality of blocks, and detects the ...
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What is a crosslink in Ethereum PoS

I understand that Ethereum PoS will have validators that proposes blocks (instead of miners that mines blocks). IN all the description I am reading I am also coming across something called crosslink, ...
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Is the current Casper proof-of-stake (PoS) protocol still resistant to cartel censorship and favouring availability over consistency?

In The History of Casper — Chapter 5, Vlad Zamfir describes Casper: The friendly ghost (CFG) in the following way: "It was the shape of a protocol that had these properties: One validator would ...
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ETH 2.0 underlying technological changes confused

i am honestly a little bit confused which technological changes we will see in ETH 2.0, pls guide me to an up to date technological explainer. is it true, that ETH 2.0 basically uses these 3 main ...
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how does casper help with finality?

My question is very simple... I've watched some videos and read articles, but couldn't figure this. It's said that on the internet If the block has been finalized, it can't be reverted/changed in ...
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How does proof of stake prevent past blocks from being changed?

I have a question about Proof of Stake. Are there any protections against a user just creating an entirely new chain, since there is no computational penalty for creating a really long chain, couldn't ...
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Where is the stake amount stored in Proof-of-Stake?

So in the PoS consensus algorithm, the nodes can lock their coins and the node with the highest coins has the highest probability of getting the chance for validating coins. I have two questions: 1) ...
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How to transition to PoS?

I'm trying to find the details of the coming PoW to PoS transition, but all I could find were generic explanations why it was so good. Can somebody point me to a resource or just explain in a few ...
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Does Casper FFG in phase 0 take its checkpoints from the current ETH 1.0 POW chain?

Does Casper FFG in phase 0 take its checkpoints from the current ETH 1.0 POW chain? I'm reading some conflicting material on this. The Casper FFG paper describes taking a checkpoint at every 50 POW ...
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Nothing-At-Stacke: What is EV and why can I not vote on both branches with full stake?

Can somebody tell me what EV means and what the graphs represent? Does p=0.9 means that I look 0.9 of my stake for the one branch and 0.1 for the other? Where does this locking happens? Why can't I ...
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After POS is implemented, what stops mining pools from being formed?

There won't be "mining pools" but stake pools but what if someone creates a system where participants stake everthing in one place in order to make the mkst money? Is this allowed and is this a ...
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Strange points of Casper algorithm

Currently, Ethereum developers are developing Casper Algorithm for Ethereum 2.0. According to their proposal, some validator are chosen randomly but validators has permanently authority to verify ...
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Is Casper FFG still going to be implemented?

What is the status of Casper FFG within the ETH 2.0 roadmap. Is the plan still that it will be implemented with Phase 0 or Phase 1? Or is the plan to adopt Casper CBC instead, and forgo implementing ...
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"Fork choice rule" : A general term? or a specific algorithm?

Is "Fork choice rule" a general term including all the algorithms used for choosing a branch among other branches in a fork (including longest chain rule etc) ? Or is it a specific algorithm designed ...
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Why is the Casper update delayed?

The update is scheduled to last year, but it is delayed. Does anyone know the exact reasons? Where is a related website? Thank you.
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How is the block interval constrained in Ethereum 2.0

Sorry if i get any of the terminology wrong here, i'm no expert when it comes to PoS protocols. How does Ethereum 2.0 control for blocktime, typically we have the idea of a function that can be ...
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Deliberate Slashing: Don't slashing and leaking incentivize DDOS attacks on smaller nodes? Won't this centralize POS more than POW, even?

In Ethereum's proposed proof-of-stake algorithm (POS): A traditional node operator can't host a node themselves (e.g. on a home network), someone could just DDOS their node to bring them offline. ...
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Official Update on Ethereum 2.0? [duplicate]

I'm trying to catch up with Ethereum 2.0, but Vitalik's keynote at devcon4 confused me. Is that keynote an official update? If it's official, Casper FFG will no longer be implemented, correct? I don'...
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What is meant by locking of ether in proof of stake?

In PoS, forgers stake their ether on a block. These ether are locked and can't be used. What does it mean by locking of ether and how does it work?
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What are the anticipated economics of moving from PoW to PoS?

As the move to PoS gets closer, I'm trying to get more details on how the PoS validators will get compensated. In PoW, it is based on formulas and the awards are transparent. Not so for staking ...
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Impact of POS and Shrading on tx costs?

How transaction fees will be affected after implementation of Casper protocol?
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Casper, Serenity, Constantinople, Ethereum 2.0

I hear alot about the terms: Casper Serenity Constantinople Ethereum 2.0 At some point I thought that all are the same, the next release of Ethereum, but apparently there’s an upcoming fixes patches ...
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What is the maximum number of validators in current PoC of Eth2.0?

In the current spec no maximum number of validators is mentioned: https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/master/specs/beacon-chain.md but is there some implicit upper bound for the number of ...
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Is there a temporal reward in Casper, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?

In Casper, the consensus-by-bet proof-of-stake system, is there a temporal reward, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?
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As of 2018 Sept 21st. When is the scheduled Casper Proof of Stake expected to arrive?

Where can one find updates on Casper POS? I hear its been constantly delayed. When is it expected to arrive? And is there an alpha/beta state where one can test it out now?
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How does Casper record votes efficiently?

I keep reading about Casper doling out rewards and punishments for voters based on how they're voting. If I am understanding this correctly, it seems that Casper punishes nodes that submit votes to ...
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During the POW/POS transition, why would a POW miner choose to mine on the chain with the POS consensus algorithm?

As the title says, what incentive does a POW miner have to mine on the hybrid POS chain? They would, effectively, be removing their own economic incentive from the consensus mechanism. I understand ...
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will Casper FFG be included in Constantinople hardfork?

According to recent dev meeting, Constantinople hardfork is going to happen on October 2018.
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What are the formal specifications for the temporal reward in Casper?

Casper has a temporal reward where those who place bets early (on the block that ends up as the winner) get more reward. What are the formal specifications of that, how is the temporal reward ...
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how can validators validate blocks?

I have a question about how POS (ethereum casper) works. I am a little bit confused. So let's say User A decides to be a validator. So he has to have at least 1000Ether in his account to become a ...
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Casper Friendly Finality Gadget - Greater degrees of transaction/settlement finality over existing PoW?

With Casper Friendly Finality Gadget, can one expect greater degrees of transaction/settlement finality over existing PoW?
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Ethereum proof of stake - Is transaction finality/settlement finality finally possible / within reach?

With Ethereum proof of stake, is transaction finality/settlement finality finally possible / within reach?
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Active vs crystallized state in shasper

https://notes.ethereum.org/SCIg8AH5SA-O4C1G1LYZHQ?view# Active state means every single block produced on PoS main chain. Crystallized state occurs every 100th block. Only Crystallized state ...
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Is the requirement for signature of more than 2/3 of validators, weighted by deposit, a solution for the data availability problem?

The data availability problem is known to be one of the main problems in blockchain systems. So in case of a proof of stake scheme which requires a block to collect signatures of at least 2/3 of ...
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Will Casper be "backwards compatible" with currently issued tokens such as ERC20 tokens?

With Casper now available for testing, does the protocol work with regular ERC20 tokens? For example if Casper becomes the main protocol for the whole Ethereum network and the old PoW method is gone,...
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Reason for World State

All Ethereum blocks contain a stateRoot field - That is, the root hash of the world state trie. I have two questions about that. From what I've understood through all the reading I've done on Casper ...
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1 answer
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How many transactions per second can Ethereum currently handle? What changes will allow the network to be able to handle more? [duplicate]

I've been searching for a more precise answer to this question, but I've seen a lot of conflicting information stating that Ethereum can currently handle anywhere from 12-45 transactions per second. ...
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What are the challenges involved moving Ethereum from POW to POS?

I'm aware of the idea to roll out the POS protocol by using a hybrid model of POS/POW. What are the challenges of such a change? This hybrid model would make mixed adoption(for legacy users and new ...
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Casper FFG slashed deposits distribution?

How is the slashed funds distributed upon failing to follow the requirements as a validator?
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Plausible Liveness on Casper FFG

This is from the Casper FFG document on Arxiv. Is a higher than b? If so how is b the target checkpoint if it is lower? If a' is a descendant of a (which I take means a previous checkpoint) how does ...
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BFT vs On-chain POW

What significant advantages does BFT provide over On-chain POW solutions and why or why not are they not more commonly used?
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Method for staking coins in Casper FFG

When Ethereum changes to a PoW/PoS hybrid (Casper FFG), how will the staking process work? I heard that there might be smart-contracts and you need to send your coins to the contract to stake the ...
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Won't Casper mean that the processing power of the network is reduced?

Something just occurred to me. The whole point of Ethereum is to act as a giant global computer. Currently that computer utilises many thousands of GPUs. When we switch to Casper I will end up mining ...
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Incentive to vote early in Casper FFG protocol?

If I understand the Casper FFG protocol correctly, (1) all votes are public, and (2) the optimal voting strategy would be to observe other votes and vote accordingly (see this post, section "The ...
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Setup PoS private network

I need to setup PoS private network with Casper and I cant find any official manual how to do it. There are only couple links which uses this git repo: https://github.com/karlfloersch/docker-pyeth-dev ...
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Three related hypothetical security flaws in Casper: does the protocol allow them?

Casper attempts to solve the problem of "catestrophic crashes", where validators with more than 1/3rd of the voting weight go offline and thereby stop any more blocks from being validated, by using an ...
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I am looking for a recent four part set of articles on Casper

Can somebody give me links to the recent articles on the history and design of casper? I saw a part 3 and a part 4, but don't recall who wrote them and I want to start with part 1 and part 2.
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