Questions tagged [casper]

Casper is a security-deposit based economic consensus protocol.

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Strange points of Casper algorithm

Currently, Ethereum developers are developing Casper Algorithm for Ethereum 2.0. According to their proposal, some validator are chosen randomly but validators has permanently authority to verify ...
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Is Casper FFG still going to be implemented?

What is the status of Casper FFG within the ETH 2.0 roadmap. Is the plan still that it will be implemented with Phase 0 or Phase 1? Or is the plan to adopt Casper CBC instead, and forgo implementing ...
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“Fork choice rule” : A general term? or a specific algorithm?

Is "Fork choice rule" a general term including all the algorithms used for choosing a branch among other branches in a fork (including longest chain rule etc) ? Or is it a specific algorithm designed ...
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“Fork choice rule” and its unclear concepts

This article (Link to article) explains the "fork choice rule". The first figure after the section "Fork choice rule" is really confusing (along with its explanation). The first question is that: ...
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Relationship between fault tolerance and network latency

I'm currently studying Ethereum's PoS and a sentence on the relationship between fault tolerance and network delays caught my attention in the Proof of Stake FAQ. Quoting Vitalik: In this model, ...
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In Casper, how to detect malicious miner

In casper document, it is only commented that honest nodes can report malicious nodes. Q1) I wonder how to detect malicious nodes. Q2) if honest nodes report some miners, how the blockchain system ...
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Why is the Casper update delayed?

The update is scheduled to last year, but it is delayed. Does anyone know the exact reasons? Where is a related website? Thank you.
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How is the block interval constrained in Ethereum 2.0

Sorry if i get any of the terminology wrong here, i'm no expert when it comes to PoS protocols. How does Ethereum 2.0 control for blocktime, typically we have the idea of a function that can be ...
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Deliberate Slashing: Don't slashing and leaking incentivize DDOS attacks on smaller nodes? Won't this centralize POS more than POW, even?

In Ethereum's proposed proof-of-stake algorithm (POS): A traditional node operator can't host a node themselves (e.g. on a home network), someone could just DDOS their node to bring them offline. ...
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Official Update on Ethereum 2.0?

I'm trying to catch up with Ethereum 2.0, but Vitalik's keynote at devcon4 confused me. Is that keynote an official update? If it's official, Casper FFG will no longer be implemented, correct? I don'...
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What is meant by locking of ether in proof of stake?

In PoS, forgers stake their ether on a block. These ether are locked and can't be used. What does it mean by locking of ether and how does it work?
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What are the anticipated economics of moving from PoW to PoS?

As the move to PoS gets closer, I'm trying to get more details on how the PoS validators will get compensated. In PoW, it is based on formulas and the awards are transparent. Not so for staking ...
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Impact of POS and Shrading on tx costs?

How transaction fees will be affected after implementation of Casper protocol?
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Casper, Serenity, Constantinople, Ethereum 2.0

I hear alot about the terms: Casper Serenity Constantinople Ethereum 2.0 At some point I thought that all are the same, the next release of Ethereum, but apparently there’s an upcoming fixes patches ...
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What is the maximum number of validators in current PoC of Eth2.0?

In the current spec no maximum number of validators is mentioned: https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/master/specs/beacon-chain.md but is there some implicit upper bound for the number of ...
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Is there a temporal reward in Casper, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?

In Casper, the consensus-by-bet proof-of-stake system, is there a temporal reward, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?
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As of 2018 Sept 21st. When is the scheduled Casper Proof of Stake expected to arrive?

Where can one find updates on Casper POS? I hear its been constantly delayed. When is it expected to arrive? And is there an alpha/beta state where one can test it out now?
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How does Casper record votes efficiently?

I keep reading about Casper doling out rewards and punishments for voters based on how they're voting. If I am understanding this correctly, it seems that Casper punishes nodes that submit votes to ...
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317 views

During the POW/POS transition, why would a POW miner choose to mine on the chain with the POS consensus algorithm?

As the title says, what incentive does a POW miner have to mine on the hybrid POS chain? They would, effectively, be removing their own economic incentive from the consensus mechanism. I understand ...
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will Casper FFG be included in Constantinople hardfork?

According to recent dev meeting, Constantinople hardfork is going to happen on October 2018.
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What are the formal specifications for the temporal reward in Casper?

Casper has a temporal reward where those who place bets early (on the block that ends up as the winner) get more reward. What are the formal specifications of that, how is the temporal reward ...
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how can validators validate blocks?

I have a question about how POS (ethereum casper) works. I am a little bit confused. So let's say User A decides to be a validator. So he has to have at least 1000Ether in his account to become a ...
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Casper Friendly Finality Gadget - Greater degrees of transaction/settlement finality over existing PoW?

With Casper Friendly Finality Gadget, can one expect greater degrees of transaction/settlement finality over existing PoW?
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Ethereum proof of stake - Is transaction finality/settlement finality finally possible / within reach?

With Ethereum proof of stake, is transaction finality/settlement finality finally possible / within reach?
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Active vs crystallized state in shasper

https://notes.ethereum.org/SCIg8AH5SA-O4C1G1LYZHQ?view# Active state means every single block produced on PoS main chain. Crystallized state occurs every 100th block. Only Crystallized state ...
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Is the requirement for signature of more than 2/3 of validators, weighted by deposit, a solution for the data availability problem?

The data availability problem is known to be one of the main problems in blockchain systems. So in case of a proof of stake scheme which requires a block to collect signatures of at least 2/3 of ...
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Will Casper be “backwards compatible” with currently issued tokens such as ERC20 tokens?

With Casper now available for testing, does the protocol work with regular ERC20 tokens? For example if Casper becomes the main protocol for the whole Ethereum network and the old PoW method is gone,...
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Reason for World State

All Ethereum blocks contain a stateRoot field - That is, the root hash of the world state trie. I have two questions about that. From what I've understood through all the reading I've done on Casper ...
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How many transactions per second can Ethereum currently handle? What changes will allow the network to be able to handle more? [duplicate]

I've been searching for a more precise answer to this question, but I've seen a lot of conflicting information stating that Ethereum can currently handle anywhere from 12-45 transactions per second. ...
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What are the challenges involved moving Ethereum from POW to POS?

I'm aware of the idea to roll out the POS protocol by using a hybrid model of POS/POW. What are the challenges of such a change? This hybrid model would make mixed adoption(for legacy users and new ...
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Casper FFG slashed deposits distribution?

How is the slashed funds distributed upon failing to follow the requirements as a validator?
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Plausible Liveness on Casper FFG

This is from the Casper FFG document on Arxiv. Is a higher than b? If so how is b the target checkpoint if it is lower? If a' is a descendant of a (which I take means a previous checkpoint) how does ...
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476 views

BFT vs On-chain POW

What significant advantages does BFT provide over On-chain POW solutions and why or why not are they not more commonly used?
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Method for staking coins in Casper FFG

When Ethereum changes to a PoW/PoS hybrid (Casper FFG), how will the staking process work? I heard that there might be smart-contracts and you need to send your coins to the contract to stake the ...
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Won't Casper mean that the processing power of the network is reduced?

Something just occurred to me. The whole point of Ethereum is to act as a giant global computer. Currently that computer utilises many thousands of GPUs. When we switch to Casper I will end up mining ...
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Incentive to vote early in Casper FFG protocol?

If I understand the Casper FFG protocol correctly, (1) all votes are public, and (2) the optimal voting strategy would be to observe other votes and vote accordingly (see this post, section "The ...
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Setup PoS private network

I need to setup PoS private network with Casper and I cant find any official manual how to do it. There are only couple links which uses this git repo: https://github.com/karlfloersch/docker-pyeth-dev ...
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Three related hypothetical security flaws in Casper: does the protocol allow them?

Casper attempts to solve the problem of "catestrophic crashes", where validators with more than 1/3rd of the voting weight go offline and thereby stop any more blocks from being validated, by using an ...
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I am looking for a recent four part set of articles on Casper

Can somebody give me links to the recent articles on the history and design of casper? I saw a part 3 and a part 4, but don't recall who wrote them and I want to start with part 1 and part 2.
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In Casper, does the block producer also get mining rewards, or only those who bet on the block?

In Casper, validators produce blocks, and then bet on whose block will be added to the state, and those who bet with the consensus are rewarded. Is the block producer also rewarded?
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Ethereum Casper - Censorship

When 2/3 of the validators censor 1/3 of the validators (by not validating their txs), 1/3 would get slashed heavily and 2/3 would get slashed a bit in the Casper protocol. Isn't it very compelling ...
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Ethereum Casper - safety vs liveness

Lets assume there are 2/3 honest nodes (non-byzantine). I call this set of nodes set A. Please tell me if I'm wrong, but AFAIK there are two main approaches, one that favors safety over liveness and ...
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Ethereum Casper block convergence

How does Casper achieve that all validators magically converge to a block without deciding the block deterministacally (stake-grindable)? How is this implemented in the testnet?
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Problem with Casper FFG?

I am following Theorem 2 from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.09437.pdf I am referring to this example https://imgur.com/hwfYZor Let a be the justified checkpoint with greatest height. Suppose that half ...
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Casper slashes nodes with poor network connection?

Moving from PoW to PoS sounds reasonable as it's more environmentally friendly and costs less to compensate miners. However, I heard Casper will slash uncles to disincentives them from forming a ...
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How to RLP-encode messages in Solidity

I'm trying to figure out how to interact with the current version of the Casper contract from Solidity. The vote-function in the casper contract takes an array of bytes, which represents the RLP-...
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What is the difference between Casper and Algorand?

What is the difference between Casper and Algorand? Casper -- Proof of Stake-Based Finality System overlaying an existing proof of work blockchain Algorand -- Byzantine Consensus Based Protocol and?...
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How will casper maintain time between 2 blocks?

In current proof-of-work, there is an artificial time delay introduced because of difficulty. This allows the network to accept transactions that ultimately form the block. Vlad argues that once ...
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Speed of Ethereum for real time DApp

Currently the block time is around 17s but the confirmation time is even longer around 2-3 minutes. Moreover, as I understand even if the transactions-per-second are 7 we still need to wait the ...
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Who proposes blocks in Ethereum Casper the Friendly Ghost

I am trying to understand how CTFG is supposed to work. The available online blogs provide a fairly high-level overview. What I have understood so far is that validators will bet on the blocks as they ...