From the paper Flash Boys 2.0: Frontrunning, Transaction Reordering, and Consensus Instability in Decentralized Exchanges
MEV (miner-extractable value) refers to the total amount of Ether miners can extract from manipulation of transactions within a given timeframe, which may include multiple blocks’ worth of transactions.
It includes techniques like: ...
In Clique Proof-of-Authority consensus algorithm the difficulty does not increase with the chain lenght (unlike the Proof-of-Work). In fact the term of "difficulty" is not relevant in PoA as there is no puzzle solving.
This term is still used as a block property to meet the yellow paper specification, but we prefer to talk about block score rather ...
There is no guarantee that both transactions will be executed in the same block, as miners do typically order them based on gas price, and you can have other transactions with higher prices than yours.
However, you have the guarantee that transaction B won't be executed before A due to the nonce, no matter if it is in the same block or in different ones.
Yes, not very often.
A miner can assemble a block full of transactions it made itself or from others that pay no gas. If the miner finds a nonce then the miner can commit that block.
However, consensus algorithms make it difficult for a lone miner to win the privilege of doing it. Mining pools are uniquely positioned to leverage transient miner advantages.
If you will be mining for pool then those packages are not necessary.
If you will be solo mining you need to run a synchronized Ethereum node. Those packages ethereum and geth provide the Ethereum node software and other related utilities.
Looking the the daily transactions https://etherscan.io/chart/tx the average for the last 9 months is like the December 2017 peak. There are a lots of transactions in the pending pool, it is above 100k constantly.
For miners it is better to choose transactions with the highest fees I'd assume the frequent change of jobs is due to new transactions arriving ...
Let's dig into this a bit.
Ethminer is indeed open source. It is also not officially maintained as of this writing (Mar 2021) - if you look at the releases, you'll see that the last one was about two years ago! (There are some more recent commits, so it does look like there is some level of maintenance still happening, though.)
Is Ethminer easy for a novice? ...
My guess is that your external hard drive is the culprit.
Ethereum nodes must be saved on a fast SSD. If your external hard drive is slow, or if your connection to the drive is slow, it may be why it never syncs.
Or you did not wait long enough. It can take days to do a "fast" sync. A "full" or "archive" sync would take even ...
g' is the unspent gas
Tg is the gas specified in the transaction
Tg - g' is the gas spent by the transaction
Ar refundable gas from execution
Let's suppose we have a 1000 gas transaction, 600 gas are spent by the execution and there are 350 gas for refund.
g' = 400
Tg = 1000
Tg - g' = 600
Ar = 350
From the formula g* = g' + min((Tg - g') / 2, Ar) = 400 + ...
Yes, transaction B will be included in the same block as transaction A provided that their gas price is high enough. If they have the exact same gas price, transaction B will be included immediately after transaction A.
Generally, miner nodes will consider B valid because there is a sequence of valid transactions up to B. However, if you were to broadcast a ...