38 votes
Accepted

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem?

You don't lose anything from behaving badly, you lose nothing by signing each and every fork, your incentive is to sign everywhere because it doesn't cost you anything. So as it doesn't cost you ...
euri10's user avatar
  • 4,640
20 votes

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem?

tl;dr from Casper 101 [In proof of stake] if there’s a fork in the chain, the optimal strategy for any validator is to validate on every chain, so that the validator gets their reward regardless of ...
jonchoi's user avatar
  • 376
19 votes

How do miners profit post-PoS, if at all, how will new miners get their start, and who will execute the EVM byte code (and why)?

Miners will receive transaction fees, along with (potentially) a small block subsidy. GPUs will no longer be useful, and CPU/RAM will be useful in that stakers will need to have close to perfect ...
Tjaden Hess's user avatar
  • 37.1k
18 votes
Accepted

Can Proof of Stake (PoS) improve the number of Transactions per Second?

Block time in Ethereum's Proof-of-Stake system (called Casper) is being conservatively targeted at around four seconds. Vlad Zamfir of the Ethereum Foundation believes the block time will ultimately ...
Mike Goldin's user avatar
16 votes
Accepted

What is casper?

There are a number of reasons I much prefer Casper over PoW: In PoW, any coalition of >50% (or 25-33% if selfish mining) can very profitably censor and revert history. In Casper, it takes close to ...
Vlad Zamfir's user avatar
16 votes

What is the total supply of Ether?

From StephanTaul on the Ethereum Forums on September, 2014: There is no maximum. 60,102,216 ethers were created during the sale, plus 2x pools of 9.9% each. 26% of 60,102,216 will be created through ...
tayvano's user avatar
  • 16k
15 votes
Accepted

What is "Weak Subjectivity"?

Subjectivity is the idea that there can be multiple potentially correct-looking versions of a particular blockchain ledger, and it's OK if a computer can't automatically choose between them. This is ...
Edmund Edgar's user avatar
  • 16.9k
14 votes
Accepted

What are the scalability benefits of PoS vs PoW?

An obvious way to scale a distributed database is to put transaction types that will never rely on each other into two separate databases. This is such a standard practice it's difficult to find a ...
A. Frederick Dudley's user avatar
13 votes
Accepted

What if difficulty bomb makes mining impossible before POS release?

The difficult bomb was actually added in a hard fork shortly after Ethereum's launch. It's not a necessary part of the protocol, and so if PoS isn't ready on time, it's most likely that another hard ...
Matthew Schmidt's user avatar
12 votes

Will a higher stake make more money in PoS?

It's counterintuitive but PoS is fairer than PoW (as we know it). Economies of scale: a proportionate saving in costs gained by an increased level of production. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/...
Roland Kofler's user avatar
11 votes
Accepted

In Casper PoS, what is a finalised block?

"Finalization" is defined cryptoeconomically; the degree of finality that a block has can essentially be quantified by "how much ETH will other validators lose if this block turns out not to be part ...
Vitalik Buterin's user avatar
11 votes

What is the total supply of Ether?

EDIT: August 2022 Total ETH supply: ~119,300,000 ETH (as of Q2 2022) With Proof of Stake, the annual issuance rate will be ~0.49% (with 13 million ETH staked)). This is a daily issuance of ~1,600 ETH. ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.7k
10 votes

What is the total supply of Ether?

At the point of writing this the supply of ether is still "infinite". Every 15 seconds two new Ether are generated. Currently we are at 107,682,753.47 Ether. These are from: Genesis (60M Crowdsale ...
cqx's user avatar
  • 3,462
10 votes

How does the Casper proof of stake algorithm work?

https://gitter.im/ethereum/research is an open, highly technical channel where the most details about Casper can be obtained currently. Here are some background references that can help before ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.7k
10 votes
Accepted

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake?

In a naively implemented proof of stake, suppose that there is an attacker with 1% of all coins at or shortly after the genesis block. That attacker then starts their own chain, and starts mining it. ...
Gruff McGruff's user avatar
10 votes
Accepted

Are miners eliminated in Proof of Authority?

It's a joke. However, Ethereum does eventually plan to move to Proof of Stake, which is intended to replace mining.
Edmund Edgar's user avatar
  • 16.9k
9 votes

What's the difference between proof of stake and proof of work?

the_truth = Agreed data structure (Block) containing valid future state of the ethereum virtual machine (and related information) as calculated by me using the rules set out in the yellow paper. rand ...
Lee's user avatar
  • 8,548
9 votes

How do miners profit post-PoS, if at all, how will new miners get their start, and who will execute the EVM byte code (and why)?

EDIT: This answer is a bit old. Now we know much more about PoS and validation details, but don't hesitate to ask new questions on a new thread. Also, meanwhile Golem Network appeared and is a pretty ...
Nicolas Massart's user avatar
9 votes
Accepted

Block header structure change under the Merge to Proof of Stake?

Your question is a bit tricky because it depends on which types of block you speak of. After the merge, the beacon blocks will encapsulate all the info and thus can be considered as "the main ...
upavloff's user avatar
  • 1,100
8 votes

Is there a penalty for having a ETH 2.0 Staking node go down?

Yes there are penalties for being offline. In "normal" (non-activity leak) circumstances, a validator loses approximately 15.8% of their stake per year they are offline. That's ~1.4% for being offline ...
paulhauner's user avatar
  • 1,248
7 votes
Accepted

What is Proof of Stake (PoS)?

From Wikipedia: Proof-of-stake (PoS) is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. While the proof-of-work (PoW) method asks users to ...
arodriguezdonaire's user avatar
7 votes

Can you (as a node) manually choose what block to bet on in Casper?

Yes and no. There's no way to enforce any given betting strategy in either PoS or PoW. For example, in PoW, there's no way to force miners to never mine on an attacker's chain. So, yes, a validator ...
Matthew Schmidt's user avatar
7 votes

Proof of Concept Ethereum

Proof of Concept (PoC) has nothing to do with consensus algorithms (PoW, PoS) or Ethereum specifically. PoC is basically a prototype application built with the purpose to verify that certain concepts ...
Sergey Ilin's user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

PoS, how will it prevent 51% attack?

Wouldn't it be possible for a government seeking to destroy the blockchain just "print out" the money for getting 51%? Possible? Yes. But then this isn't any different to the current situation ...
Richard Horrocks's user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

Are there still uncles with proof-of-stake?

As it stands, by my reading of it, there is something akin to uncles in the proposed PoS system, referred to as "dunkles". See this: The second strategy is to simply punish validators for creating ...
Lee's user avatar
  • 8,548
7 votes

What is Terminal Total Difficulty (TTD)?

Terminal Total Difficulty (TTD) specifies the final, terminal Proof of Work block, after which the Proof of Stake consensus (implemented in the Beacon Chain) takes over. Pictorially: TTD is the total ...
eth's user avatar
  • 85.7k
6 votes

What is GHOST and what is its relationship to Frontier and Casper?

Casper began life as an adaptation of the principles of GHOST to security-deposit-based PoS. The most complex version of Casper uses a subtree-choice rule, executes all transactions and includes bets ...
Vlad Zamfir's user avatar
6 votes

Why are coins at risk when honestly staking?

In the current vision of Casper Proof of Stake protocol, the validators (who are staking), when eligible, need to bet on the finality of blocks. More technically speaking, each bet has to specify for ...
Alexey Akhunov's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Are light nodes possible in Casper?

My impression is that SPV nodes cannot be validator nodes for the reason you stated (proof that ETH is securing the chain requires knowledge of blockchain state). With Bitcoin and node can convert to ...
studycrypto's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

How many full time developers are working on Proof of Stake research?

This answer is several months old but may still be useful: https://blog.ethereum.org/2015/10/18/vitaliks-research-and-ecosystem-update/ "Casper: Ethereum’s proof of stake algorithm now under ...
cooldude45's user avatar

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