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Questions tagged [sharding]

Sharding involves adding new shard chains to the main Ethereum blockchain, so that a computer doesn't have to download and compute every transaction in the history of the blockchain in order to make a new transaction or otherwise participate in securing and using Ethereum. The primary goal is a massive scalability improvement. For more information see https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Sharding-introduction-R&D-compendium.

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ELI5 what are erasure codes?

Reading this article, I understand that erasure codes are a potential solution to the data availability issue in sharding. That is, a light node can have higher certainty regarding the contents of a ...
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How do you calculate a wallet balance in the world of shards?

I have a general question about calculating account balances in the new world of sharding. In the Bitcoin blockchain, in order to accurately calculate someone's wallet balance, you have to analyze ...
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Will block numbers be sequential on a sharded blockchain

When Ethereum shards (assuming it does) will the block numbers across the multiple shards be unique? I doubt it (I don't think the shards can have sequential block numbers and be independent of the ...
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Where and how can one test plasma or sharding on testnet?

Is there a good tutorial on how to test out plasma or sharding for Ethereum 2.0 on testnet?
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Clarification about some scalability terminology

I am currently reading about the scalability of Ethereum but I cannot really understand the difference between some terms that occur often. What is the relation between the terms: Layer 1 Layer 2 on-...
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ELI5 sparse Merkle trees on sharding

Lately, there's been some interest in sparse Merkle trees (SMTs). I know Ethereum uses Patricia tries (PTs), but this thread seems to indicate that working with SMTs would yield similar performance, ...
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In what way does Sharding allocate transactions for each shard? state? or node selection?

In what way does Sharding allocate transactions for each shard? I know that accounts are assigned to each shard based on prefix in the account's address and each shard processes the transactions ...
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Is the mauve paper still actual?

I would like to know if the mauve paper is still actual or it is better to rely on the sharding FAQ and Proof of stake FAQ or on other sources?
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Sharding: Shards with different properties?

I am currently trying to get more into sharding but there's one question I haven't found any answer to yet. Could sharding introduce shards with different properties? For example could Shard A have ...
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In Ethereum and Swarm, Difference between Sharding and Chunking

Understand that in Ethereum further releases sharding will be included for scalability purposes. In swarm, "Chunks are pieces of data of limited size (max 4K), the basic unit of storage and retrieval ...
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POS/Sharding - Incentive for submitting proof-of-dishonesty

While reading through the Nothing at Stake section of the Proof of Stake FAQs it is described how dishonest validators will be punished for voting on two chains. This requires a proof of misbehavior ...
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Active vs crystallized state in shasper

https://notes.ethereum.org/SCIg8AH5SA-O4C1G1LYZHQ?view# Active state means every single block produced on PoS main chain. Crystallized state occurs every 100th block. Only Crystallized state ...
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Ethereum's State sharding vs Zilliqa's Network Sharding

From Zilliqa what I get is they have temporary transactions done in parallel in different shards then merged into a main chain. What's the difference between the latest sharding specification for ...
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Is the requirement for signature of more than 2/3 of validators, weighted by deposit, a solution for the data availability problem?

The data availability problem is known to be one of the main problems in blockchain systems. So in case of a proof of stake scheme which requires a block to collect signatures of at least 2/3 of ...
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1answer
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Will the introduction of sharding have an effect on the functionality of currently deployed smart contracts or the EVM?

Is there any risk the the hard fork required for sharding or Plasma to take effect on the Ethereum network will cause compatibility issues for contracts already deployed? Will the protocol in place ...
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Why isn't there more concern of Ethereum reaching 1TB? Should we be worried?

I've read previous answers such as that posted by user: eth that highlights some of the EIPs such as 103: Serenity and 105: Sharding. These are more long term solutions but this is an emergent problem ...
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Which sharding implementations exist?

This question should probably be put as on-hold or closed as off-topic since it tends to lead to spammy or self-promotional answers, or will need to be updated frequently with new implementations, but ...
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How to fix an error with Vyper: invalid syntax (, line 168)

I'm trying to figure out why the following line is giving the error at https://vyper.online/: invalid syntax (, line 168). Line 168 is self.collator_pool.empty_slots_stack_top] = index). @internal ...
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Difference between Sharding and Plasma

What are the differences between Ethereum Sharding Proposal and Plasma? I know plasma can run on top of sharding, but what are the differences innterms of paradigm and technology?
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How will tokens like ERC20s work with sharding?

If the token contract is made now on what will be the main chain, but long term it is desired for the application to run within a shard, will the tokens ever be able to be sent there? The map of ...
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Sharding vs nested chains [duplicate]

I'm having trouble understanding the difference between nested chains (Plasma) and sharding. As I understand it now, Plasma creates a nested chain, periodically transmitting root hash state of the ...
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2answers
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Could blockchain be distributed over torrent (DHT)?

I look at the scaleability discussion where one of the problems is the blockchain grows in size too much so that specialized storage systems will be needed which will lead towards centralization. I ...
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398 views

Do we have any control over sharding in IPFS?

Suppose I have a huge N-dimensional database and want to store it using IPFS, is there any way I can shard my dataset in such a way that I get N hashes each for single dimension using IPFS?
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Does each shard in Ethereum 2.0 have its own address space?

Sharding is planned for Ethereum 2.0, which will split the state into a few hundred shards, connected along a hypercube network topology. Does each shard have its own address space, or, is there a ...
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Question about sharding

I'm reading the white paper, more specific about scaling. I'm stuck on the second strategy. Second and more importantly, however, we will include an intermediate state tree root in the ...
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1answer
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What are the differences between Truebit and sharding

Truebit is a recent proposal for building smart contracts on top of Ethereum. Truebit allows outsourcing complex computations to untrusted parties, verifying that the computation was done correctly, ...
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1answer
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Sharding and gas limit

Currently, the gas limit imposes an upper bound on the amount of computation that can be done in an Ethereum smart contract. Part of the purpose of this limit is to upper-bound the burden on miners ...
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In an Ethereum 2.0 with sharding, do shards produce their own blocks?

In a sharded state (the hypercube one for example), does each shard produce their own blocks (is each shard their own unique block-chain) ?
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Will sharding allow for a much lower gas limit?

The current gas costs are for all nodes to process a transaction or contract function call. Once we have sharding, only a subset on the nodes(1 shard) will process that transaction/contract function ...
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Might storage be part solution for sustaining ETH PoS sharding? [closed]

My understanding, from an answer to previous post is that it's currently cost prohibitive to exchange datasets of significant size over the ETH network. Is it possible for the ETH network to evolve ...
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Can you implement Sharding in PoW? [closed]

Can you implement Sharding in a Blockchain with Proof of Work? And in a Blockchain with Proof of Stake? Thank you for clarification.
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Proof of stake, mauve paper - glossary of terms

Just getting my head around some of the concepts in Vitalik Buterin's Mauve paper. There are a few terms for which I don't yet have a clear definitions. These include the terms below (shown with my ...
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1answer
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Can a smart contract be validated only by a specific selected node

Is it possible to direct a transaction to a validating node such that - while other nodes receive the broadcast, only the selected node can validate the transaction and the others simply ignore it? ...
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2answers
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How will sharding differ from federated sidechains?

I suppose sharding will be implemented in the future, and there will be many mini-islands that hold only parts of the blockchain. Does it mean that local nodes will mostly support local TX? If I live ...
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What is a Shard?

Proof of Stake brings new concepts to the Blockchain ecosystem. In the dictionary "Shard" is defined as "A broken piece or fragment, as of pottery or glass".
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How are the network shards allotted to miners?

Are they allotted randomly? And, is there an upper limit for the number of shards for a particular miner? Generally, it is 2-3, but is there a defined upper bound? And what is the process/process in ...