You can use a service called Moralis https://moralis.io/
They have an API you can use to query exactly that and all other kinds of useful things. It's currently free.
I don't work for them or have any investment in them but I have been using their service for a month or so and it's really really good!
I think the main point you are missing is the middle word of EVM - Ethereum Virtual Machine. It's called virtual machine because it's a machine which is only emulated on physical machines.
All client nodes form the EVM. Some nodes are only verifying transactions, and some nodes do the actual heavy lifting: executing transactions and including them in blocks -...