How to deal with asynchronous operation because of the delay blockchain ? How does the blockchain perform under high concurrency? how to deal with the mutually exclusive variable?
The blockchain itself is effectively single-threaded: Transactions are executed one by one, and the state of the previous transaction has been altered if it is then referenced by the next transaction. So for example if you want to assign an incrementing ID to a series of records, you can be confident that ultimately each ID will only be assigned to one record.
The upshot is that things that require a strict ordering need to be managed inside the blockchain, which is always ultimately consistent with itself, and you can't assume immediate consistency with respect to external systems.
There is no concurrency on the blockchain. The transactions are ordered by the node that authors the block according to the order in which that node received the transactions.
So in a case that might seem like a race condition, e.g. a token exchange, where many orders might by placed within the block time and according to state values such as price seen at the previous block, many transactions might simply get invalidated because that price gets adjusted on a first come first serve basis into the TX pool.