8

I'm working on the tutorial at https://www.ethereum.org/dao and I'm getting the following error:

1:5: Error- Expected import directive or contract definition.
    function owned() {
    ^

When I get to "The Code" section I get:

"Could not compile source code." 

Not sure how to resolve this issue. Has anyone else had this problem, and if so how did you resolve it?

enter image description here

18

Not true in the OP's case, but a cause of this problem is missing a semi-colon from the first line specifiying compiler version, e.g.:

pragma solidity ^0.4.6;  
2

There is a formatting error in the first two lines of the code on the page https://www.ethereum.org/dao. Here's what the code looks like when you view the source of the page:

enter image description here

Here's the corrected code:

contract owned { 
    address public owner;

    function owned() {
        owner = msg.sender;
    }

    modifier onlyOwner {
        if (msg.sender != owner) throw;
        _
    }

    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) onlyOwner {
        owner = newOwner;
    }
}


contract Congress is owned {

    /* Contract Variables and events */
    uint public minimumQuorum;
    uint public debatingPeriodInMinutes;
    int public majorityMargin;
    Proposal[] public proposals;
    uint public numProposals;
    mapping (address => uint) public memberId;
    Member[] public members;

    event ProposalAdded(uint proposalID, address recipient, uint amount, string description);
    event Voted(uint proposalID, bool position, address voter, string justification);
    event ProposalTallied(uint proposalID, int result, uint quorum, bool active);
    event MembershipChanged(address member, bool isMember);
    event ChangeOfRules(uint minimumQuorum, uint debatingPeriodInMinutes, int majorityMargin);

    struct Proposal {
        address recipient;
        uint amount;
        string description;
        uint votingDeadline;
        bool executed;
        bool proposalPassed;
        uint numberOfVotes;
        int currentResult;
        bytes32 proposalHash;
        Vote[] votes;
        mapping (address => bool) voted;
    }

    struct Member {
        address member;
        bool canVote;
        string name;
        uint memberSince;
    }

    struct Vote {
        bool inSupport;
        address voter;
        string justification;
    }

    /* modifier that allows only shareholders to vote and create new proposals */
    modifier onlyMembers {
        if (memberId[msg.sender] == 0
        || !members[memberId[msg.sender]].canVote)
        throw;
        _
    }

    /* First time setup */
    function Congress(
        uint minimumQuorumForProposals,
        uint minutesForDebate,
        int marginOfVotesForMajority, address congressLeader
    ) {
        changeVotingRules(minimumQuorumForProposals, minutesForDebate, marginOfVotesForMajority);
        members.length++;
        members[0] = Member({member: 0, canVote: false, memberSince: now, name: ''});
        if (congressLeader != 0) owner = congressLeader;

    }

    /*make member*/
    function changeMembership(address targetMember, bool canVote, string memberName) onlyOwner {
        uint id;
        if (memberId[targetMember] == 0) {
           memberId[targetMember] = members.length;
           id = members.length++;
           members[id] = Member({member: targetMember, canVote: canVote, memberSince: now, name: memberName});
        } else {
            id = memberId[targetMember];
            Member m = members[id];
            m.canVote = canVote;
        }

        MembershipChanged(targetMember, canVote);

    }

    /*change rules*/
    function changeVotingRules(
        uint minimumQuorumForProposals,
        uint minutesForDebate,
        int marginOfVotesForMajority
    ) onlyOwner {
        minimumQuorum = minimumQuorumForProposals;
        debatingPeriodInMinutes = minutesForDebate;
        majorityMargin = marginOfVotesForMajority;

        ChangeOfRules(minimumQuorum, debatingPeriodInMinutes, majorityMargin);
    }

    /* Function to create a new proposal */
    function newProposal(
        address beneficiary,
        uint etherAmount,
        string JobDescription,
        bytes transactionBytecode
    )
        onlyMembers
        returns (uint proposalID)
    {
        proposalID = proposals.length++;
        Proposal p = proposals[proposalID];
        p.recipient = beneficiary;
        p.amount = etherAmount;
        p.description = JobDescription;
        p.proposalHash = sha3(beneficiary, etherAmount, transactionBytecode);
        p.votingDeadline = now + debatingPeriodInMinutes * 1 minutes;
        p.executed = false;
        p.proposalPassed = false;
        p.numberOfVotes = 0;
        ProposalAdded(proposalID, beneficiary, etherAmount, JobDescription);
        numProposals = proposalID+1;
    }

    /* function to check if a proposal code matches */
    function checkProposalCode(
        uint proposalNumber,
        address beneficiary,
        uint etherAmount,
        bytes transactionBytecode
    )
        constant
        returns (bool codeChecksOut)
    {
        Proposal p = proposals[proposalNumber];
        return p.proposalHash == sha3(beneficiary, etherAmount, transactionBytecode);
    }

    function vote(
        uint proposalNumber,
        bool supportsProposal,
        string justificationText
    )
        onlyMembers
        returns (uint voteID)
    {
        Proposal p = proposals[proposalNumber];         // Get the proposal
        if (p.voted[msg.sender] == true) throw;         // If has already voted, cancel
        p.voted[msg.sender] = true;                     // Set this voter as having voted
        p.numberOfVotes++;                              // Increase the number of votes
        if (supportsProposal) {                         // If they support the proposal
            p.currentResult++;                          // Increase score
        } else {                                        // If they don't
            p.currentResult--;                          // Decrease the score
        }
        // Create a log of this event
        Voted(proposalNumber,  supportsProposal, msg.sender, justificationText);
    }

    function executeProposal(uint proposalNumber, bytes transactionBytecode) returns (int result) {
        Proposal p = proposals[proposalNumber];
        /* Check if the proposal can be executed:
           - Has the voting deadline arrived?
           - Has it been already executed or is it being executed?
           - Does the transaction code match the proposal?
           - Has a minimum quorum?
        */

        if (now < p.votingDeadline
            || p.executed
            || p.proposalHash != sha3(p.recipient, p.amount, transactionBytecode)
            || p.numberOfVotes < minimumQuorum)
            throw;

        /* execute result */
        /* If difference between support and opposition is larger than margin */
        if (p.currentResult > majorityMargin) {
            // Avoid recursive calling

            p.executed = true;
            if (!p.recipient.call.value(p.amount * 1 ether)(transactionBytecode)) {
                throw;
            }

            p.proposalPassed = true;
        } else {
            p.proposalPassed = false;
        }
        // Fire Events
        ProposalTallied(proposalNumber, p.currentResult, p.numberOfVotes, p.proposalPassed);
    }
}
  • 1
    Thanks! I just wasn't looking hard enough! I appreciate your help! – Brien Jun 27 '16 at 13:19
1

I run into the same problem when testing in https://remix.ethereum.org/.

I fixed it by adding a semicolon as follows:

pragma solidity ^0.4.11;    
1

This can happen when version of solidity in the header is the one later than the compiler version in Settings.

0

I ran into this error when I was loading a library with a different version than my pragma call. I was able to fix by changing the version in my contract to match the library.

In my case it was the Oraclize library:

pragma solidity ^0.4.0;
import "github.com/oraclize/ethereum-api/oraclizeAPI.sol";

^ my working code

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