The EVM bytecode (compiled form) is available/observable to all users at all times.
The data in contract states, including variables explicitly marked private, is available/observable to all users at all times. private describes visibility to other contracts but it is a misunderstanding to assume it implies protection for confidential information.
ERC777 provides guidelines for minting and burning of tokens. Here are excerpts from ERC777:
Minting tokens is the act of producing new tokens.
[ERC777] intentionally does not define specific functions to mint tokens.
This intent comes from the wish not to limit the use of the [ERC777] standard
as the minting process is generally specific ...