You should install ethereum client https://geth.ethereum.org/downloads/
Create a folder to store blockchain node.
Start geth from cmd with params geth --datadir "path to folder from 2" --networkid 1 and to wait synchronization is ended.
Update: I had originally thought the OP's question was about stored state, but have since realized that even the block headers seem to be unavailable. Answers have been edited a bit to reflect this, but still kept in their general format to help anyone who might have the headers but is wondering where their state went.
Full nodes verify the entire chain, but ...
Basically, what you want is to have a confirmation that a given block was included in the canonical chain. I assume that you do not need very high security because based on your examples a confirmation of only one block would be enough for your need.
I think that expending your second option could be a solution.
Alternative 1 - Validate double blocks with ...
There is no a complete registry in where you can find such information, but using the following sources maybe you can calculate or estimate the number of nodes per month. Probably you can code an script to know the total number of nodes.
Ethereum Node Tracker has some interesting stats that you could find useful, but the next API request provides the Total ...
I believe something got corrupted when I lost connection. I resynced from scratch and everything has been working fine. I have even cleanly exited and restarted my node and it catches back up fast now.
Proof-of-work chains like Ethereum are probabilistic. The "longest chain" rule helps nodes determine the canonical chain but much ambiguity exists at the head of the chain. Uncertainty diminishes exponentially with each new block on the longest known chain. The different blocks you see are candidates and it is not uncommon to have more than one ...
As far as I know the current GoEthereum versions support snap sync by default. This is resumeable operation. You do not need to give extra command line parameters like --fast anymore to activate it.
My node synced under 8 hours using the default parameters.
More information about snap sync and its speed.
More information about runnning an Ethereum node ...
The state isn't pruned during syncing, it is pruned after. During sync the node downloads accounts incrementally until the whole State is downloaded. After the node is in sync, pruning is activated. Since every account change is represented as a node in the Merkle Trie, to prune an account modification entry all that it takes is to delete the corresponding ...
In Ethereum 1.0 each block has the root of the state. If the state built at block N matches the root stored in the block the state is good. Validating the block's chain to the genesis should make sure the chain is valid.
But Ethereum 1.0 is a PoW chain so there's a non-zero probability the block N has been replaced by another with a larger proof of work.
The normal operation of Ethereum and other blockchains is to Store new transactions in a bucket
Ethereum does not store transactions in a bucket and this is not standard terminology.
The Ethereum transaction life cycle is explained here.
The bootnodes on the commandline are no longer needed. That repo was created when ropsten was attacked a few years ago. New client version should have the correct bootnodes.
Around 10 Mar 2021 Ropsten was forked to Berlink, see announcement on Ethereum blog. In order to synchronize to the correct branch use geth v1.10.1 at least.
The Ethereum Wallet you are using is the Mist application. The work on this application ended on March 22, 2019.
The error you are seeing is probably due to the fact that the application has not been updated with the latest Ethereum changes.
Might not be fully what you want but since all the answers are outdated, you can get a paid (small fee) verified copy from http://archivenode.net or http://getblockchain.download or http://download.myethereumdatabase.net or http://get.myethereumdatabase.net
If you don’t want to pay for network costs, you also have the option to contribute to the source code ...