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A hardfork is a change in the protocol that is not backwards compatible, ie transactions from nodes running the older software will not be considered valid. With a soft fork nodes running an older version of the software could still publish valid transactions, they will just not have the latest and greatest features.


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A hardfork is a situation where by consensus the ethereum peers agree to change the blockchain protocol spec as of a certain block number. The Homestead release has been hardcoded into the current ethereum clients to occur at block number 1,150,000. Nodes need to be upgraded to the latest release in order to continue functioning correctly after the ...


4

Soft fork transactions would not be included in a block, so there's no way for miners to be paid. A key difference with all other transactions that encounter an exception, is that they are included in the blockchain. Inclusion in the blockchain is the consensus for how miners are effectively paid. A transaction with an exception has all state reverted, ...


3

The short and precise definition is provided by BIP 123: Hard Forks In a hard fork, structures that were invalid under the old rules become valid under the new rules. Soft Forks In a soft fork, some structures that were valid under the old rules are no longer valid under the new rules. Structures that were invalid under the old rules ...


3

A hard fork needs every node of the network to „vote“ for it whereas a soft fork only needs the support of the majority of the miners. Nodes that don’t agree with the hard fork kind of leave the main chain and build a second chain. So it finnaly depends on the majority of nodes, which will be the actual main chain. So as a hard fork needs all members of the ...


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There are bascally two kinds of forks: hard and soft. Soft fork is a change in block verification rules, that makes verification more strict: all blocks that are valid according to the new rules are also valid according to the old rules, but not vice versa. After the fork, some nodes may not be upgraded, either by mistake or for reason, but even though, if ...


2

Your understanding is close but it's not quite right. A soft fork is a change that makes some block, that was previously legal, illegal. A hard fork is a change that makes some block, that was previously illegal, legal. Now imagine the majority of the network has applied the change, and think about this from the point of view of a node that hasn't applied ...


1

You are broadly correct, although it's kinda misleading to think of "the" mempool. Every Ethereum node has a mempool, some bigger than others. A transaction may be dropped from a miner's mempool, only to be re-added by a peer later. If you're running a node locally, it'll typically keep any transactions you submit to it indefinitely, so your transaction may ...


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Yes, they're uncle blocks. To confirm, you can check against the list of known uncle blocks on EtherScan - https://etherscan.io/uncles.


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The problem occurs using Geth Version: 1.5.0-unstable with mist Wallet 0.7.6 (Beta 20) “vulnerability release”. With Geth Version: 1.4.8-stable and Wallet 0.7.6 syncing blockchain is "A LOT" faster: syncing ~1,7MBlocks took 1.45 h instead of 4 days! That seems due to the current develop branch, which will break backwards compatibility with 1.4.8 and ...


1

No need of technical answer here. Soft fork is a fork. As soon as you don't run the consensual software you are on a fork . So a miner that validates a transaction that other won't because he doesn't have the same forked software as the majority, it means that this miner is not in the fork. So he could mine whatever he wants, this would remain on the old, ...


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