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Some answers Yes, miners mine Ropsten in order to provide a public good, not for profit. Would this disappear if there were to be an app with enough traction to clog Ropsten? Most likely. Ropsten has been plenty clogged before, not due to a popular dApp, but because of spam or 51% attacks. We did not see mining fall off during the attacks, nor did we see it ...


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In Ethereum 1.0, yes, it is a miner who includes the transaction in the blockchain. Read about Proof-of-work (Pow). In Ethereum 2.0, it is a "validator" who includes the transaction in a block of a shard. Read about Proof-of-stake (PoS). At the time of writing this answer, Ethereum 1.0 is still the "main" network. Ethereum 2.0 kicked off ...


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The gas fee for executing a state-changing function in a smart contract is the sum of: The total cost of the executed opcodes, where each opcode has a specific cost The total cost of changed storage slots (states), where: Changing a slot from zero to non-zero costs 20000 gas Changing a slot from non-zero to non-zero costs 10000 gas Changing a slot from non-...


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So it works like this really what you have is a CPU or a GPU and that is what you use to solve equations arithmetically and when you solve those equations you get rewarded for solving that problem. Like if you were a student and your teacher said what's 1 + 1 and you were the first person to answer 2 and so she then rewards you .00153 Bitcoin or w/e as a ...


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In order to determine if mining will be profitable for you or not, you should use a mining calculator. (You can just search for 'mining calculator' online.) The reason why is that profit will depend on how much you're spending on electricity and other factors. You will need to know the cost of electricity wherever you're running the ASIC. You'll need to know ...


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Simple answer is yes. The miner can select whichever transactions from the pool they like. They can include all of them, none of them, or any combination they want based on any criteria - including the from address, or the contracts being called, or even the outcome of the contract call. Of course, they won't get paid for transactions they don't include, ...


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Reminds me of this: reddit.com/r/ethereum/comments/7lx1do/a_christmas_mystery_sweepers_and_zero_gas_price/ So possibly the address has a known miner friend who has agreed to mine his transactions for zero gas price for whatever reason. That's not so trivial to accomplish: the miner has to be able to finish mining the blocks, at least at some point in time. ...


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The receipt guarantees more than "will be executed" - it guarantees "was executed". But unfortunately, it doesn't guarantee that it will not be rejected at a later point by the nodes on the network. In fact, nothing does. But the longer it stays there, the higher the probability is that it will remain there forever. It is custom to wait 12 blocks before ...


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The transaction will be included in the blockchain the moment it is included in a block (at least from the miner's perspective), so it doesn't need to "wait" for other nodes to verify it first. If the miner is dishonest and the transaction result is not calculated correctly the block will be ignored by others. Miners can choose which transactions ...


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They own the contracts. For example, one of the Tether contracts is named BlackList. This contains a mapping: mapping (address => bool) public isBlackListed; ...which can be updated by the owners using addBlackList(). When an address is added to the blacklist, that address can no longer use its Tether balance.


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Its seems to be a widely known issue with the latest Nvidia drivers with people using Phoenix miner. Using Phoenix Miner 5.5c Nvidia 461.40 drivers The solution that worked for me was resetting the 3060ti to stock settings in MSI Afterburner. Starting phoenix miner and letting it run for a few minutes, then apply the usual overclocks, eliminates the ...


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If you want to mine, you have to get your mining node synchronized with the network. To get synchronized there are certain hardware requirements: SSD being one of them. So, since you don't have SSD, you can't get synchronized with the network. And since you can't get synchronized you can't mine either. Even if you installed SSDs it would most likely not be ...


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Ethereum 1.0 has a basic limitation, as all global blockchains do: each block can only hold so many transactions. Due to this scarcity, every time even one application gets too popular on the main network, gas prices for transactions shoot up Yes, Ethereum 2.0 aims to solve this problem by bringing more scalability through the use of side chains (shards). ...


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You can mine Ethereum using geth Install geth on your pc then create an account using "geth account new" , then simply just run geth with --mine option then it will start mining the ether and all the earned ether will be sent to the account generated Note:- As the ether mainnet is using POW you require a very powerful pc high best graphic card


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In a proof of work chain it is not possible to guarantee a miner will mine at least one block per day since finding a block is close a random event. Assuming that N participants are in similar conditions the probability of finding one block at any time is 1/N (and the probability of not finding one is 1 - 1/N). If in one day there k blocks then the ...


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Miners agree to use their computational resources to run the blockchain. In return, they get a chance to earn some Ether in doing this. Any time a transaction is mined, the miners compete to "win" this transaction. In your scenario, all the miners have the same computing power, so unless the difficulty function increases for succeeding transactions,...


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There are two ways to have a "full" blockchain: a full node and an archive node. A full node is what 99% of miners use since it uses a lot less space and is easier. Full does basically all of the stuff you'd expect: verifying, mining, executing. They store the most recent state and are not interested in historical state even if they do store all ...


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Short answer is no but they do. See https://ethereum.stackexchange.com/a/45187/405 for a deeper explanation of the process. But as explained, it is because they would take too many risks not to validate each transaction in a block. It's game theory. If a miner was pushing a block with invalid transactions by not validating them, it would be detected by ...


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Miners don't get any rewards for verifying candidate blocks. However they allow to add a new block to the chain, and therefore gain the opportunity to mine the next block and get its reward.


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When you submit a transaction to the network, it is distributed to all/most nodes of the network. Some of them are miners. Some of the miners pick your transaction to include it into the next block they intend to propose. In this process, they execute the transaction, including the smart contracts that are called. Then the miners try to find a suitable hash ...


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Since ether on the ropsten network virtually isn't worth anything, does the gas price for transactions affect the priority in which they're mined? Ropsten ether may be worthless in "the real world" (for example, if you ever try to convert it to dollars), but in the perspective of the Ropsten network participants, it is just as worth as it is on any other ...


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Short answer: 1/2048 here is the highest possible natural (i.e. not taking time bomb into account) relative difficulty increase for a block with no uncles. For a block with uncles this number is twice as high: 1/1024. So if previous block had difficulty of x, then current block will have difficulty of at most x + x/2048, in case current block doesn't have ...


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Mining Ethereum these days is becoming more and more complex. Eth 2.0 is causing even more confusion to make matters worse. However, questions about mining ethereum from your laptop have come up quite often, so I do my best to answer. In short, the answer is no; however, for some gaming laptops with a 6GB GPU or higher, you can technically mine Ethereum with ...


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Ethereum's Proof-of-Work mining algorithm is designed to be ASIC-resistant. Basically this means that using an ASIC should not be beneficial enough to warrant the high cost of ASICs. Yes, an ASIC gives you a lot of hashing power, but it costs a lot. So the question you need to ask yourself (and possibly research) is whether the high cost of an ASIC can be ...


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The pool manager is in charge of validating transactions and building a candidate block for the pool miners : Most mining pools are "managed," meaning that there is a company or individual running a pool server. The owner of the pool server is called the pool operator, and he charges pool miners a percentage fee of the earnings. The pool server ...


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Finding a block is, more precisely, organizing a block and finding a nonce. The miner will work with pending transactions (known) and the miner gets the transaction fees, so the optimal approach is roughly to organize the highest gas consumption and highest gas price, but the miner is not obligated to organize it a certain way. The block hash includes the ...


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My understanding is that currently you could do that. It would require to be patient to be able to send your transaction because the moment when you are lucky enough to mine a block is not predictable. But with enough hashpower you could try and expect your transaction do be mined. I looked at some node code and I can't see anything preventing this. It did ...


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will a transaction that alters the state do so before the next transaction, regardless of whether it is in the same block? Yes if their transactions are in the same block, would the second transaction be rejected? Yes An important point is that neither Alice or Bob knows who is first: the miner decides which transaction is first. See also What is the ...


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Try specifying explicitly your private network informations such as in this example from the web3js documentation : web3.eth.accounts.signTransaction({ to: '0xF0109fC8DF283027b6285cc889F5aA624EaC1F55', value: '1000000000', gas: 2000000 common: { baseChain: 'mainnet', hardfork: 'petersburg', customChain: { name: 'custom-chain', chainId: 1, ...


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Assuming you talk about randomness, any previous block is also vulnerable. blockhash(block.number-1) is just an example people use for 'previous blockhash'.


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