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50

Uncles are stale blocks that contribute to the security of the main chain, but are not considered the canonical "truth" for that particular chain height. In contrast to orphan blocks (which have no parent), uncle blocks are linked to the chain but are not part of the final selection. Uncles are stale blocks which are not orphaned. Orphan blocks have no ...


49

Some numbers - running ethminer on my CPU gives me a hashrate of 0.248 megahashes per second (MH/s). For comparison, each of my over-clocked AMD R9 390X GPUs gives me a hashrate of about 31.58 MH/s. My GPU gives me 127x the hashrate of my CPU. It is a lowish end CPU AMD FX(tm)-6350 6 core processor and with motherboard + CPU + disk drive + fans consumes ...


46

Lots of answers here, but none of them has actually answered the question "what is a share?" In almost all mining pools, a share is a block "solution" not quite good enough to be published as an actual block, but still good enough that it's really hard to find them. This means that shares can be used to measure how much work you're doing, but just with ...


43

What is nonce in Ethereum? If you refer the Glossary at Github Wiki, there are two types of nonce used in Ethereum. Account nonce - It's simply the transaction count of an account Account nonce: a transaction counter in each account. This prevents replay attacks where a transaction sending eg. 20 coins from A to B can be replayed by B over and over to ...


42

From the glossary Uncle: a child of a parent of a parent of a block that is not the parent, or more generally a child of an ancestor that is not an ancestor. If A is an uncle of B, B is a nephew of A. Why they are needed? To help reward miners for when duplicate block solutions are found because of the shorter block times of Ethereum (compared to other ...


41

From reddit post 60 million + 12 million + 18million = ~90million 60 million - is the Pre-sale. 12 million - is the dev fund, 0.2coins per 1 coin sold in the crowdsale. ~18 million - 1 million coins mined per month for 18 months prior to going from POW to POS. Update #1: 91,018,773.78 (April 25, 2017). Update #2: 97,017,191.75 (Dec 13, 2017). Some ...


38

Here is a guide you may find useful: Download Ethereum Software Setup Ethereum Software Download Mining Software Setup Mining Software Mine Step 1: Download Geth The first thing you need to do is go to this link download Geth. Geth is the program that communicates with the Ethereum Network and acts as the a relay between your computer, its hardware and ...


32

Why Does Fast Sync Restart As stated in Péter Szilágyi's comment above, you will have to wait for --fast syncing to complete, otherwise you will have to restart the process again. The message you should see on your console when --fast syncing has completed is "fast sync complete, auto disabling" as shown below: I0416 17:16:12.631667 30629 blockchain.go:...


31

What's the best hardware for mining ethers? GPU For the highest hashrate per GPU, the answer is the AMD HD 7990 (minimum hashrate 43 MH/s), followed by the AMD R9 Fury X (minimum hashrate 28 MH/s). The HD 7990 was released in 2013 and is harder to purchase from stores as this series has been superseded by the R9 series released in 2015. Internally, the HD ...


31

(Please edit me. I'm a community wiki) Summary Don't allow TCP request on port 8545 from the Internet to be forwarded to your geth machine Don't enable --rpc without checking that only your GPU mining computers can access TCP port 8545 on your Ethereum node geth computer Don't run the Ethereum Wallet on the same machine as your geth computer. If you need a ...


30

You can load this script to your geth console Mine only when there are transactions! var mining_threads = 1 function checkWork() { if (eth.getBlock("pending").transactions.length > 0) { if (eth.mining) return; console.log("== Pending transactions! Mining..."); miner.start(mining_threads); } else { miner.stop(); ...


25

The issuance model is not fixed yet. It is an ongoing discussion whether or not the costs for the consensus needs to be financed by inflation that basically taxes every coin holder or if transaction fees are sufficient. Please note that the costs for secure consensus are much lower with Casper compared to current proof of work. More details here For this ...


22

According to the Ethereum white paper: The current intent at Ethereum is to use a mining algorithm where miners are required to fetch random data from the state, compute some randomly selected transactions from the last N blocks in the blockchain, and return the hash of the result. This has two important benefits. First, Ethereum contracts can include ...


21

EthOS is based on Ubuntu Linux source code which is under the GPL 3 licensing. Therefore, by not supplying the source code to ALL for free they are in violation of the licensing. I will be filing a complaint with UBUNTU about this violation. They are essentially stealing an open gpl licensed software and selling it as proprietary without giving the source ...


21

You can make the difficulty static by modifying the CalcDifficulty in Geth to return a static number. Example: func CalcDifficulty(config *ChainConfig, time, parentTime uint64, parentNumber, parentDiff *big.Int) *big.Int { return big.NewInt(1) } Rebuild Geth and use your modified version. Source: Answer to Is it possible to change the block target ...


20

The DAG started at 1 GB at the time of the Frontier launch, and increases by approximately 0.73x per year. That puts the current size at roughly 1.35 GB as of mid-January 2016 (feel free to comment with an exact link if anyone has one). Following the same crude approximation: The 2GB limit will be hit around mid-December 2016 The 3GB limit will be hit ...


19

Miners will receive transaction fees, along with (potentially) a small block subsidy. GPUs will no longer be useful, and CPU/RAM will be useful in that stakers will need to have close to perfect uptime and fast servers in order to make money. They will have to buy ETH, and stake it. The stakers will have to put down a deposit(stake), that cannot be used for ...


18

From https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-2.md: Mining difficulty is calculated from the time difference between blocks. The exact formula will change in Homestead. The symbol // in the following denotes integer division. Frontier: block_diff = parent_diff + parent_diff // 2048 * (1 if block_timestamp - parent_timestamp < 13 else -1) + ...


18

Summary If the timestamp difference (block_timestamp - parent_timestamp) is: < 10 seconds, the difficulty is adjusted upwards by parent_diff // 2048 * 1 10 to 19 seconds, the difficulty is left unchanged >= 20 seconds, the difficulty is adjust downwards proportional to the timestamp difference, from parent_diff // 2048 * -1 to a max downward adjustment ...


18

Ethereum nodes (regardless of mining) need to have an accurate time, otherwise they will not be able to connect to peers and to the network (https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/wiki/Connecting-to-the-network). Small differences in time are tolerated by nodes, but as one node's time gets further away from Coordinated UTC Time (per NTP), its number of ...


17

ASIC mining is prevented using two methods. The current proof-of-work, Dagger, is very memory hard. In order to mine you require, at this moment, at least 2GB of ram. Because of this it's very hard to do with ASICs. Ethereum will switch to proof-of-stake soon. If you knew all the R&D you are doing on your ASIC would be worthless in a few months you ...


17

From their webpage, I put the features in code format, and in italic my 2 cents on it. On a side note I'm somewhat surprised we can have opinion based posts / question in here but hey... Remote configuration: instruct rig to remote reboot, set core clocks, mem clocks, fan control, pool info, and other settings remotely. nothing you can't do in Ubuntu out ...


17

Gas is paid for out of the sender's ether balance, at the rate specified by the chosen gas cost. Any unused gas is refunded, and consumed gas is credited to the miner who mined the transaction, again at the rate specified by the gas cost.


17

(Hi @phuong, please reply on your progress by adding comments below). Lets go through the steps to get your environment working. We will use the command line geth so we can trace through the issues. To mine the Testnet, you will need to have downloaded the whole Testnet blockchain and have set up your coinbase. Your coinbase is by default the first ...


17

A benefit of a blockchain is that it is append-only with, in practice, immutable past blocks. These past blocks are immutable because it is very difficult (via proof-of-work) to create a competing block that "rewrites history". Plus, you have to take into account the fact that subsequent blocks add their own difficulty. So to change a block in the past, and ...


16

The 2 best ways I found were: 1) Instant: an ether faucet here: http://faucet.ropsten.be:3001/ 2) An hour or two: Switch on Mining from the menu Develop > Start Mining (Testnet only) or Command Shift M You'll instantly have 1 ETH for each address you send to the faucet, and 20 or 30 test ETH from mining in a few hours at least.


15

From StephanTaul on the Ethereum Forums on September, 2014: There is no maximum. 60,102,216 ethers were created during the sale, plus 2x pools of 9.9% each. 26% of 60,102,216 will be created through mining every year. This means that 15,626,576 will be created every year on top of the 60m and the two pools. After a while, 15,626,576 ether won't ...


15

Transactions are executed purely sequentially, in an order set arbitrarily by the miner who wins each block. Higher gas priced transactions are more likely to make it into a block, so that contributes to order as well, at the discretion of the miner. Note that each miner chooses separately, but only one miner wins a round. The winning miner determines the ...


15

In reference to this: http://ethpool.org/ "If you receive frequent "JSON-RPC Problem" errors try to increase your --farm-recheck value. You should find a valid share every 1-2 minutes. If it constantly takes you longer to find a share try to lower your hashrate values (minimum is 0.1)."


15

Just use geth if you don't want to join a pool. This is called "solo mining". It's done this way: One master server is running geth: geth --rpc --rpcaddr "IP ADDRESS" --rpcport PORT Other computers (miners) are only running ethminer: ethminer.exe -G -F http://[IP ADDRESS:PORT]


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