It works the same as any other transactions: You can call a view or pure function in a transaction, and the transaction can be mined as usual. It just won't do anything of course, since it's a view or pure function.
If you're looking for such a table for the purpose of golfing down contract gas cost, I'd recommend you bookmark protocol_params.go.
It is good for two reasons:
It is the source of truth. The gas costs specified in that file are what a full node really meters.
It lists the important numbers you really need. For example, the usual gas table doesn't show how ...
Here's an ethresear.ch thread covering the same topic, for anyone who may stumble upon this question (as I did): https://ethresear.ch/t/clarification-on-how-calldata-persists-on-the-blockchain-and-how-optimistic-rollups-use-it/8136
Some answers from that thread:
(barrywhitehat) Call data is stored as part of the eth chain history. If you want to validate ...