14

The mined block is an uncle. The uncle reward formula is (U_n + 8 - B_n) * R / 8 where R is the static reward of 5, U_n is the uncle number and B_n is the block numer, so: Uncle 0 : 4.375 ETH Uncle 1 : 3.750 ETH Here's an example: B_n = 1337, R = 5 U_0 = (1336 + 8 - 1337) * 5 / 8 == 4.375 U_1 = (1335 + 8 - 1337) * 5 / 8 == 3.750


14

If you got 3.75 ether, this was an uncle mining reward. Kind of the "second place" of mining on Ethereum. You found a solution but someone else found the solution before you. Thankfully for you, it was soon enough from the original block that a reward was paid out. It's still 5 ether per block for a mining reward. Update: As of Oct-16-2017 05:22:11 AM +UTC ...


9

The miners will mine on the Ethereum Blockchain, they do not need to mine your currency specifically: they secure all contracts on the chain.


6

In short: empty blocks propagate around the network more quickly than blocks that aren't empty. If two mining nodes find the proof-of-work solution to the blocks they're mining at the same time, only one of those blocks will ultimately be accepted by the network. The other will become an uncle. The block that is able to propagate around the network more ...


5

You can change source file consensus to implement. As follows: clone [go-ethereum] source file open consensus/ethash/consensus.go file, then find AccumulateRewards function and annotation tow lines. The result is func AccumulateRewards(state *state.StateDB, header *types.Header, uncles []*types.Header) { reward := new(big.Int).Set(blockReward) r := ...


4

Just to elaborate a little on Olmo's answer, your token is a Smart Contract. The entire Ethereum network works together to ensure Smart Contract code executes as written.


3

A miner can modify their code to start producing blocks that give them a higher block reward: no one can prevent you from modifying and building code that you run. But, other miners will ignore the blocks you create because they know that your block is not following the consensus rules. Yes, nodes have code that handle ignoring blocks and transactions that ...


3

When talking about a cryptocurrency, the block rewards are new coins given to the miner, right? yes I guessed that the reward for miners of smart contracts are the native tokens Also you are correct. Smart contracts are deployed via transactions. Hence mining a smart contract is also just another transaction and miners are rewarded using native ...


3

5 Eth is always 5 Eth When mining a block, you earn the mining reward of 5 ETH + the gascost*gasprice of the transactions contained in the block. So overall you make more than 5 Eth.


2

No. Currently, difficulty is computed as: adj_factor = max(1 - ((timestamp - parent.timestamp) // 10), -99) child_diff = int(max(parent.difficulty + (parent.difficulty // BLOCK_DIFF_FACTOR) * adj_factor, min(parent.difficulty, MIN_DIFF))) As you can see, there is nothing about gas in the formulas. A Metropolis EIP to adjust the difficulty also does not ...


2

Answer: There were uncles in the block. Without links to the specific blocks are talking about it is difficult to know for certain. However, there is the potential that the block you are looking at may have also included some uncles. https://forum.ethereum.org/discussion/2437/confused-about-block-rewards https://www.cryptocompare.com/mining/guides/what-...


2

It doesn't provide any value but for developpement we need this testnet. So devs are mining on testnet at least to validate their own transactions, but also others. It's a sort of gift to the community as providing code or helping test new versions. The main benefit for a developper to mine on testnet is to have access to Ether on the testnet. Without ...


2

Answering a question that links to my own answer on another question, ha! So there are really two flavors of Casper, one of which is hybrid PoS/PoW and the other is full Pos. Casper FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget): This is the hybrid that runs PoS as a contract on top of the existing PoW system in order to achieve finality so block history revision is less ...


2

No there are not delays. Indeed all accounts have an explicit balance and they can spend the money they have. Obviously, it is possible that, before block x I have 0 money in my account, then I succefully create my block and receive a reward. From block x+1 I can spend the money because my balance is no longer 0. N.B. it is possible that the fork of the ...


2

I'm guessing you've read something that says gas isn't the same thing as ether, which is correct. I guessed that the reward for miners of smart contracts are the native tokens (or ether)... Correct. ...used as fuel for the smart contracts... Yes, but it's a bit more involved. When a miner runs a smart contract, the associated operations inside the ...


1

While I cannot point to a specific instance, I do know that, like you mentioned, there have been suspicious activities on gambling sites that may point to this type of behavior. Note: the below example is not about blockhashes as the source of randomness, but has the same idea. The best example I have is the gambling site, Etheroll. There have been a few ...


1

it's possible, miners needs to get paid for their work... but they still have to solve the hash in order to do it. See Alcazar answer :) he's faster than me :)


1

Mining empty blocks is valid, miners don't do it because they would get more profits if they include transactions since they get the gas. Mining an empty block is not easier than mining a full one, the process is the exact same, they generate a block and try nonces until they get a valid one which gives them the right to publish the block. Some people ...


1

One thing you've missed is that the block reward was 5 ETH between blocks 0 and 4,370,000. At that point the block reward was reduced to 3 as part of the Byzantium hard fork, under EIP-649. That should give you another 2 * 4,370,000 => 8,740,000 ETH. Without seeing how you've calculated the uncle and transaction rewards, the above extra may or may not get ...


1

My understanding is that technically a smart contract could be built using Ethereum blockchain... no need for native tokens, right? This is correct, you can build a smart contract of any kind, tokens are not a must. Tokens are needed not for building the DApp’s features but as an incentive for miners to use the platform, right? This is incorrect. Miners ...


1

1) init does not trigger mining. Init creates the first block in your blockchain. miner.start() does start mining process, if you have set a coinbase account 2) Nobody receives the reward for the genesis block. The reward is given to the account 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 , but this account is invalid


1

Yes, the third block you mined had 1 transaction and you received the fee from it. You can click on the block (1375519), and then click on the transactions to see further details: Gas Used By Txn: 290935 Gas Price: 0.0000004 Ether (400 Gwei) Actual Tx Cost/Fee: 0.116374 Ether ($0.000000)


1

Your token is riding "for free" with the rest of the tokens out there. (Not really for free, because you'll still be paying out transaction fees to miners for executing your token smart contract.) If you'd like to give miners an extra reward, it's not outside the realm of possibility. You could always include transferring some of your token to block....


1

you can use the web3 library , and when you are connected to your node(geth\parity) you can use this command web3.eth.getBlock('latest') The following is what you will get: author: '0xea674fdde714fd979de3edf0f56aa9716b898ec8', difficulty: '1409289537104996', extraData: '0x65746865726d696e652d657537', gasLimit: 6712392, gasUsed: 420000, hash: '...


1

The issue is that there's not a fixed price per unit of gas. 50,244 gas was used, but how much each user paid for each gas can't be known from just the header. By examining each transaction in a block through web3.eth.getTransaction() and web3.eth.getTransactionReceipt(), you can eventually figure who paid what, and then determine the final miner reward. ...


1

Currently, there isn't anything set in stone, as the development community is debating the issue. There are arguments for reducing the issuance rate of Ether even leading up to POS. See : https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/186 . But these are still at discussion stage and not concrete code.


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