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Questions tagged [zero-knowledge]

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Are zk (zero knowledge) blockchains private?

I've been seeing all this information around zero-knowledge blockchains or layer twos like zkSync. Is my information private on these chains/L2s?
Patrick Collins's user avatar
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1 answer
22 views

How to put a zero knowledge verifier contract onto zkSync?

I want to place a zero-knowledge verifier contract on zkSync to verify some functions. For example: x^2 + x + 5 = 245 The answer is 15, but I don't want people to see others transactions and copy it. ...
Patrick Collins's user avatar
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0 answers
49 views

Verifying eth_call Results with Cryptographic Proofs for L1s and L2s

I'm interested in enhancing the reliability of static call requests (eth_call) to Ethereum smart contracts. Currently, the returned data is only as trustworthy as the node or service providing it. ...
MShakeG's user avatar
  • 1,703
1 vote
0 answers
29 views

Can I store a secret on evm without using zkp

I want to gatekeep a contract function by only allowing it to be called through an API endpoint. I tried using this Verifier library but uses alot of gas. Is there a simpler more cost efficient ...
Ibra's user avatar
  • 71
0 votes
0 answers
42 views

How to create a ZKP rollups on top of any EVM (eg. Hyperledger Besu) blockchain network?

I have a Hyperledger Besu network running, with IBFT 2.0 consensus protocol, up and running. I'm figuring out how could I deploy a layer 2 network, on top of this Besu network, in order to increase ...
Alexander Herranz's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
32 views

Is it possible to hide wallet address with ZK proofs

We are working with zk contracts on partisia blockchain, so out of curiosity I want to hide the senders address while sending a transaction. Consider a case where we are minting NFTs anonymously, if ...
Aman Mehra's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

Secret Voting Without Commit/Reveal

I am building a voting contract where people (who hold a certain ERC20 token) can vote to determine a binary outcome. The votes should be weighted with the amount of ERC20 tokens that the voters ...
Neo's user avatar
  • 35
1 vote
0 answers
59 views

What does it mean to run a Polygon zkNode without the zkProver?

I was going through the "Setup Local zkNode" section in the Polygon zkEVM Developer Guides and came across the following line: If you are unable to meet the Prover requirements, you can ...
Ashutosh Pathak's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
80 views

How to prevent replay attacks on ZK Proof Transactions?

Alice wants to prove a statement (let's say, she has a secret value x such that x * 2 = 10) to Bob without revealing x). Alice generates a proof using the ZK-Snark protocol. const { proof, ...
lordarora's user avatar
  • 296
1 vote
1 answer
251 views

Why do we use circom circuit in zero knowledge?

As a smart contract developer, I am unable to understand why do we use circom circuits for zero knowledge proofs? All the examples like A*B = C can be done in javascript and solidity. We can also ...
EresDev's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
1 answer
718 views

How to implement Poseidon hash function into a smart contract

I am building a Merkle tree inside a smart contract, and I want to use the Poseidon hash function to later prove that an element belongs to the tree through a ZK proof. The problem is that I cannot ...
Fred Baptista's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
77 views

Why TornadoCash smart contract calls address = 8?

I've trying to understand how zkSNARK works in TornadoCash. I faced with the tricky thing in the code which I cannot understand. I researched the code of this smart contract at address: https://...
Valera Dubrava's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
199 views

zK learning, don't know where to start

I am thinking of learning zK (don't know where to start). If someone with experience could point to the best resources to learn starting from 0, that would be awesome. It exists already advanced ...
donoso.eth's user avatar
  • 1,493
2 votes
0 answers
78 views

Confidential Transactions on Polygon Network

I can see that Polygon Network has integrated zero knowledge proof based rollup technology using Hermez Network. I can also understand that Polygon is working on zkEVM based prover and verifier system....
Gokul Alex's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
567 views

What is the best lib to use for zero knowledge application?

This is a simple smart contract I found in the internet for a zero knowledge applications. But there is no libs imported. What is the best lib to use in this situation? Can openzeppelin solve this ...
Omar Jabban's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
51 views

Decrypting a message using smart contract

Is this possible to send a message from address A to address B on Ethereum (or another type of blockchain), and it is so that address B can't open the message, unless a smart contract permits it ...
m0j1's user avatar
  • 177
4 votes
0 answers
113 views

How the mimc bug from circomlib was safely exploited in practice on Tornado Cash?

Several years ago, there was an unenforced constraint on verification in the cirmcomlib library : a tool for building projects using ZsNarks. The error allowed to forge cryptographic nullifiers/proofs ...
user2284570's user avatar
  • 1,018
1 vote
2 answers
585 views

Smart Contract with private data

I'm looking for a way to have private data in an Ethereum smart contract. I explored the ZK space, could work on some scenarios but not totally private. I wanted to ask if you know new tools, sdks etc ...
m0j1's user avatar
  • 177
0 votes
1 answer
321 views

How to compute witness for Merkle tree proof using Zokrates?

I am trying to learn how Zero Knowledge proof for Merkle tree verification work. Therefore I am using this example from Zokrates: import "hashes/pedersen/512bit" as hash; import "hashes/...
Dakata's user avatar
  • 225
12 votes
7 answers
3k views

Does giving enough zero knowledge proofs give knowledge?

Let's say I want to use a zero-knowledge proof to prove that I am older than 18 to vote, without revealing my age. But then, let's say I give another one to prove that I can 'drink', and am older than ...
Patrick Collins's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
73 views

Hide the value of a variable until a condition is fulfilled

Let's say i have a variable, whose value is set by a user calling a certain method string commitment; function setValue(x) public { commitment = x; } if I want to hide the value of ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Understanding data availability for zk rollups

My understanding is that if a zkrollup operator suddenly ceases operation, you have to sync the rollup’s history from genesis to get the current state. In other words, if the transaction data has been ...
Zingo's user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
1 answer
99 views

What is the current state of zkEVM development?

What is the current state of zkEVM? That is - a general-purpose (not specialized like Loopring or Immutable), EVM-compatible, Solidity-compatible zk-rollup layer 2. To my knowledge they are still ...
sentiinex's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
164 views

How to integrate zokrates proof into ethereum transactions?

I need some help with applying a Zokrates zero knowledge proof into ethereum transactions I am using Goerli testnet and i have a full node that is fully synced to the ethereum blockchain. I have ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
842 views

Create zkProof onchain

Is it possible to create ZK-SNARKS proofs and verify them, all onchain, with solidity, without reveling the witness? The proving and verifying keys could be created offchain, but these two would have ...
dNyrM's user avatar
  • 918
0 votes
1 answer
788 views

Signing a transaction without exposing the private key to the user (or anyone else)

I would like to have a system that will only sign a transaction if x condition is met. It would need to be as trustless as possible; especially not trusting the user. Optimally, the system would be a '...
Tacocat 4642's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
191 views

Zokrates code not compiling in Remix

I am trying to work on Zokrates in Remix IDE I am trying this code : import "hashes/sha3/512bit" as sha256packed def main(private field value, private field before, field valueHash, field ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
58 views

What part of zk blockchain is private?

What part of a ZK blockchain is private? Let's say for example starknet or zksync, both of them use ZK technology. If I execute a transaction and I send a native coin (none of them have it yet) ...
Filip Laurentiu's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
290 views

What data does Layer 2 Rollups commit to Layer 1?

Trying to understand what happens with rollups and other scaling solutions. What is confusing to me is that when reading about rollups I see that what gets updated is the Merkle root of the state of ...
Blissful's user avatar
  • 382
2 votes
0 answers
145 views

zk-SNARKs: High level language options?

I would like to implement an idea that requires me to use a zero knowledge proof. What options do I currently have, assuming I want (need, due to lacking cryptography knowledge) to use a high level ...
Dillo's user avatar
  • 21
3 votes
2 answers
287 views

Is it possible to prove ETH balance without revealing the holding address?

I want to prove that I own an amount of ETH without revealing the address which holds it. I don't know if this is possible at all, whether with zk-snarks technology or any other way. I've found ...
malandante's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
176 views

How does zero knowledge proof prevent frontrunning

I have learned about that zkp can hide the information of orders, e.g. the type and the number of assets, but it's still confusing. Is there any paper or project about using zero-knowledge proof to ...
Mkotori's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
0 answers
22 views

Can you tell how much money a user sent and sender/reciever when it comes to Zero Knowledge Proofs? [duplicate]

As I understand Zero-Knowledge Proofs: You can tell someone sent a certain amount of money You can tell someone received a certain amount of money But you can't cryptographically tie the two together....
mczarnek's user avatar
  • 121
0 votes
1 answer
103 views

What is a ZKRollup? And how does it work in scaling a DAPP?

I have tried looking into existing solutions such as ZKSync. I couldn't understand why you would rewrite your smart contracts in a different language - Zinc (as opposed to Solidity/Vyper).
Satya Botcha's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
41 views

“Universal Proof of Work” with SNARKs?

If SNARKs are able to prove computations of arbitrary complexity and difficulty were executed correctly, would it be possible to use them to create a Proof of Work system where ANY computation can be ...
Sam Parker's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
304 views

How to compute pairing in a smart contract

I am working on the elliptic curve and pairing stuff in Ethereum smart contract. How can I compute pairing such e(p1,p2)? I know that we have a pre-compile pairing check in Ethereum client which is ...
mohsen's user avatar
  • 53
1 vote
1 answer
76 views

AZTEC validateProof and validateProofByHash sender / signer addresses

The AZTEC Crypto Engine lets you validate proofs and cache them for future re-use, since they are fairly expensive (around 800,000 gas for a 4-note join-split proof before Istanbul, and now about 200,...
Paul Pham's user avatar
  • 638
0 votes
2 answers
84 views

Why Should I use Ethereum in an Online-Election(Vote) System based on ZKP(Zero-Knowledge Proof)?

I am an undergraduate student studying Ethereum in South Korea. Currently, I am developing an online election system that can be applied. At first, I came up with this idea: The system has an ETC ...
이승민's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
139 views

Why is NOT a protocol with a Turing-complete smart contract language able to use SNARKs to prove the validity of the chain?

In the following article (Link to the article: https://medium.com/nearprotocol/unsolved-problems-in-blockchain-sharding-2327d6517f43), the challenges of zk-SNARKs are mentioned as follows: The ...
Questioner's user avatar
  • 2,680
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

How can I combine Quorum and Zero Knowledge Range Proofs

How can I combine Quorum and Zero Knowledge Range Proofs I have 20 years of experience at java JEE coding, and 10 years in devops as well, but no experience with blockchains, or the Go language. I ...
Ron King's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Can Ethereum verify zk-SNARK proofs?

I am wondering if the Ethereum Virtual Machine can verify a proof generated from a certain statement? Are there any precompiled contracts for verifying a proof?
Mohamed's user avatar
  • 491
2 votes
1 answer
284 views

Javascript library to use zkSnark circuit

I would like to generate the proofs for zkSnarks on client side and therefore would need a library in javascript that helps to read a circuit and generate proofs. I found one combination here which ...
Jagrut's user avatar
  • 121
3 votes
0 answers
185 views

Zero Knowledge Range Proofs

I am new to the world of Zero Knowledge Range Proofs. I read the following on GitHub: https://github.com/ing-bank/zkproofs The Zero Knowledge Range Proof allows the blockchain network to validate ...
Heba Mohsen's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
66 views

What mathematical concepts do I need to master in order to understand the Aztec Procotol?

What mathematical concepts do I need to master in order to understand how privacy in the Aztec Protocol works? When I look at the white paper, I have no idea what is going on; however, I am confident ...
Julian Martinez's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
322 views

Zero Knowledge v Multi Party Computation (MPC)

I am struggling with understanding the difference between the two. From what I am putting together, they have different adversarial models, MPC adds the condition of collusion between parties i.e. ...
0xsegfault's user avatar
  • 1,260
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

crypto-signing in a smart contract -> verify the identity of a smart contract

my Question in short is: -> is it possible to digitally sign some data by a smart contract (e.g. with a secret key of the contract) and thus confirm that it was exactly this smart contract, who ...
Johannes K's user avatar
43 votes
4 answers
14k views

zk-SNARKs vs. Zk-STARKs vs. BulletProofs? (Updated)

zk-SNARKs, Zk-STARKs and BulletProofs are three major zero knowledge proofs to provide privacy for the blockchain technology. If we can compare them, (1) Bulletproofs and Zk-STARKs require no ...
Questioner's user avatar
  • 2,680
0 votes
1 answer
122 views

Meaning of "fungibility" in "Zerocash (Zcash)"? [closed]

According to the following article, Zcash provide a high level of "fungibility". compared to other crypto-currencies. Article link: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/z/zcash.asp fungibility ...
Questioner's user avatar
  • 2,680
2 votes
1 answer
796 views

Zero Trust vs Zero Knowledge -- Difference [closed]

What is the difference between Zero Trust and Zero Knowledge?
Nathan Aw's user avatar
  • 1,954
4 votes
2 answers
510 views

Is "Pinocchio zk-SNARK" a specific type of zk-SNARK?

Is "Pinocchio zk-SNARK" a specific type of "zk-SNARK"? And if yes, what is difference?
Questioner's user avatar
  • 2,680