Questions tagged [zero-knowledge]

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Understanding data availability for zk rollups

My understanding is that if a zkrollup operator suddenly ceases operation, you have to sync the rollup’s history from genesis to get the current state. In other words, if the transaction data has been ...
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What is the current state of zkEVM development?

What is the current state of zkEVM? That is - a general-purpose (not specialized like Loopring or Immutable), EVM-compatible, Solidity-compatible zk-rollup layer 2. To my knowledge they are still ...
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How to integrate zokrates proof into ethereum transactions?

I need some help with applying a Zokrates zero knowledge proof into ethereum transactions I am using Goerli testnet and i have a full node that is fully synced to the ethereum blockchain. I have ...
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Create zkProof onchain

Is it possible to create ZK-SNARKS proofs and verify them, all onchain, with solidity, without reveling the witness? The proving and verifying keys could be created offchain, but these two would have ...
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Signing a transaction without exposing the private key to the user (or anyone else)

I would like to have a system that will only sign a transaction if x condition is met. It would need to be as trustless as possible; especially not trusting the user. Optimally, the system would be a '...
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Zokrates code not compiling in Remix

I am trying to work on Zokrates in Remix IDE I am trying this code : import "hashes/sha3/512bit" as sha256packed def main(private field value, private field before, field valueHash, field ...
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What part of zk blockchain is private?

What part of a ZK blockchain is private? Let's say for example starknet or zksync, both of them use ZK technology. If I execute a transaction and I send a native coin (none of them have it yet) ...
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What is a "short commitment" or "short proof"?

I'm trying to understand how RSA accumulators work, and I am unable to find what people mean when they say "short commitment" or "short proof." Does it refer a commitment or proof ...
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zk-SNARKs: High level language options?

I would like to implement an idea that requires me to use a zero knowledge proof. What options do I currently have, assuming I want (need, due to lacking cryptography knowledge) to use a high level ...
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Is it possible to prove ETH balance without revealing the holding address?

I want to prove that I own an amount of ETH without revealing the address which holds it. I don't know if this is possible at all, whether with zk-snarks technology or any other way. I've found ...
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How does zero knowledge proof prevent frontrunning

I have learned about that zkp can hide the information of orders, e.g. the type and the number of assets, but it's still confusing. Is there any paper or project about using zero-knowledge proof to ...
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Can you tell how much money a user sent and sender/reciever when it comes to Zero Knowledge Proofs? [duplicate]

As I understand Zero-Knowledge Proofs: You can tell someone sent a certain amount of money You can tell someone received a certain amount of money But you can't cryptographically tie the two together....
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What is a ZKRollup? And how does it work in scaling a DAPP?

I have tried looking into existing solutions such as ZKSync. I couldn't understand why you would rewrite your smart contracts in a different language - Zinc (as opposed to Solidity/Vyper).
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“Universal Proof of Work” with SNARKs?

If SNARKs are able to prove computations of arbitrary complexity and difficulty were executed correctly, would it be possible to use them to create a Proof of Work system where ANY computation can be ...
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How to compute pairing in a smart contract

I am working on the elliptic curve and pairing stuff in Ethereum smart contract. How can I compute pairing such e(p1,p2)? I know that we have a pre-compile pairing check in Ethereum client which is ...
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AZTEC validateProof and validateProofByHash sender / signer addresses

The AZTEC Crypto Engine lets you validate proofs and cache them for future re-use, since they are fairly expensive (around 800,000 gas for a 4-note join-split proof before Istanbul, and now about 200,...
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Why Should I use Ethereum in an Online-Election(Vote) System based on ZKP(Zero-Knowledge Proof)?

I am an undergraduate student studying Ethereum in South Korea. Currently, I am developing an online election system that can be applied. At first, I came up with this idea: The system has an ETC ...
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Why is NOT a protocol with a Turing-complete smart contract language able to use SNARKs to prove the validity of the chain?

In the following article (Link to the article: https://medium.com/nearprotocol/unsolved-problems-in-blockchain-sharding-2327d6517f43), the challenges of zk-SNARKs are mentioned as follows: The ...
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How can I combine Quorum and Zero Knowledge Range Proofs

How can I combine Quorum and Zero Knowledge Range Proofs I have 20 years of experience at java JEE coding, and 10 years in devops as well, but no experience with blockchains, or the Go language. I ...
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2 votes
2 answers
652 views

Can Ethereum verify zk-SNARK proofs?

I am wondering if the Ethereum Virtual Machine can verify a proof generated from a certain statement? Are there any precompiled contracts for verifying a proof?
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1 answer
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Javascript library to use zkSnark circuit

I would like to generate the proofs for zkSnarks on client side and therefore would need a library in javascript that helps to read a circuit and generate proofs. I found one combination here which ...
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Zero Knowledge Range Proofs

I am new to the world of Zero Knowledge Range Proofs. I read the following on GitHub: https://github.com/ing-bank/zkproofs The Zero Knowledge Range Proof allows the blockchain network to validate ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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What mathematical concepts do I need to master in order to understand the Aztec Procotol?

What mathematical concepts do I need to master in order to understand how privacy in the Aztec Protocol works? When I look at the white paper, I have no idea what is going on; however, I am confident ...
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4 votes
1 answer
262 views

Zero Knowledge v Multi Party Computation (MPC)

I am struggling with understanding the difference between the two. From what I am putting together, they have different adversarial models, MPC adds the condition of collusion between parties i.e. ...
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crypto-signing in a smart contract -> verify the identity of a smart contract

my Question in short is: -> is it possible to digitally sign some data by a smart contract (e.g. with a secret key of the contract) and thus confirm that it was exactly this smart contract, who ...
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41 votes
3 answers
11k views

zk-SNARKs vs. Zk-STARKs vs. BulletProofs? (Updated)

zk-SNARKs, Zk-STARKs and BulletProofs are three major zero knowledge proofs to provide privacy for the blockchain technology. If we can compare them, (1) Bulletproofs and Zk-STARKs require no ...
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Meaning of "fungibility" in "Zerocash (Zcash)"? [closed]

According to the following article, Zcash provide a high level of "fungibility". compared to other crypto-currencies. Article link: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/z/zcash.asp fungibility ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Zero Trust vs Zero Knowledge -- Difference [closed]

What is the difference between Zero Trust and Zero Knowledge?
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2 answers
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Is "Pinocchio zk-SNARK" a specific type of zk-SNARK?

Is "Pinocchio zk-SNARK" a specific type of "zk-SNARK"? And if yes, what is difference?
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2 votes
1 answer
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An example on using "zk-SNARK" in "smart contract"?

I read this article: https://media.consensys.net/introduction-to-zksnarks-with-examples-3283b554fc3b However, it's not clear to me a function such as zksnarkverify has been already implemented in ...
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6 votes
2 answers
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Updated: Is it possible to hide the sender or receiver of transactions by "zk-SNARK" or "Bulletproofs"?

To support the user privacy, is it possible to hide the sender address or receiver address of transactions by "zk-SNARK" or "Bulletproofs" ? Or we’ll be able only to hide the value that is mapped to ...
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4 votes
3 answers
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Is there a decentralized zk-SNARK (zero-knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive ARgument of Knowledge)?

Normally, in zk-SNARK, we need to generate two public keys: one for prover and one for verifier. However, the input parameter of this generator algorithm must be secret, meaning that it must be hidden ...
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3 votes
2 answers
676 views

zk-SNARK use cases in blockchain (except payment)?

Is there other examples of using zk-SNARK for supporting "private transactions" except Zerocoin or Zchach ? (For example, is it possible to use zk-SNARK for health data ? or any other use cases in ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Hashing Algorithm Equality in zk-SNARK [closed]

I am looking to implement the zk-SNARK capabilities of Ethereum to allow a user to prove that they have all the components required ('a', 'b', 'c', 'd') to create a publicly known hash 'x'. My general ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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How to use the zksnarks capability of Ethereum?

Simple question but I couldn’t find the answer anywhere… How to use the zksnarks capability of Ethereum in order to perform fully Anonymous sending of Eter from one wallet to an other one ?
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11 votes
3 answers
2k views

Can ZKSnarks be implemented on the Ethereum ecosystem?

Since Zcash seems to have it's ZKSnarks implementation finished (or almost at least). And versions of JPMorgan's Quorum had appeared with ZKsnarks implementations included see: https://www.coindesk....
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5 votes
1 answer
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Can I make a "secret" invite only Smart Contract?

I have a public smart contract where I am able to make a secret and hash it within the contract. I then share the "secret" with N number of my friends and with the secret they can create a new hash (...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Did I actually just win 1 Ethereum? Is it truly mine? [closed]

I was looking for coins to mine & exchange for bitcoins when I found out about Ethereum. I have literally no knowledge about it or anything at all. I went for a site (https://freeeth.me/) to win ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Current state of zero knowledge proofs?

Are there any current proof of concepts or implementations of zero knowledge proofs in the context of smart contracts? If not how long until we can store private data on a public blockchain?
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2 votes
1 answer
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Where can I find the snarkverify precompile (opcode) implementation in parity and the example coin mixing contract that utilizes it?

With the recent announcement of zkSNARKs support and the ZoE (ZeroCash over Ethereum) mixing contract (https://z.cash/blog/zksnarks-in-ethereum.html) Where can I find the mentioned parity branch and ...
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9 votes
1 answer
790 views

What data will zk-SNARKs protect?

Implementing zk-SNARKs is planned in Ethereum roadmap, what data will be obfuscated? transaction sender and receiver? data in transactions? data stored in contracts? variables and methods in ...
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