Questions tagged [validators]

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How many validators can run with single Consensus client?

Is there limit for how many Validators (full = 32ETH) can be running on/with single Consensus client ? Based on schema (below), only Consensus client is connected to p2p network and validators are ...
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3 answers
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Unstaking ETH from validator set After The merge

When validators stake ETH after the merge, would that ETH be beholden to the same hard-fork to that allows pre-merge staked ETH to be withdrawn? example: post merge, stake ETH. what is the withdrawal ...
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Ethereum Validators - Can IPFS Host Rocket Pool's Minipool?

Is it possible to host a Rocket Pool Minipool Ethereum validator on IPFS? The IPFS data would be encrypted to not expose the ETH Validator's private key. IPFS is built for storing data such as ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Where did the number of 32 Eth to become a validator come from?

What was the Math behind coming to the number of 32 Eth as a threshold to become a validator? Which parameters were considered to come to this number? Did the parameters of Eth distribution in the ...
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Completely disregarding all storage costs, is compute time a sufficient metric to determine the computational cost of an opcode operation?

Completely disregarding all storage costs, is compute time a sufficient metric to determine the computational cost of an opcode operation? Or are/is there some other factor(s) that need to be ...
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Is it possible to check when a transaction has been sent?

Is it? I don't mean the date-time of the 1 confirmation, but when a person has actually submitted a transaction to the blockchain or rather the transaction pool? Or is it the case that the date-time ...
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Ethereum 2.0: supermajority, stake distribution among validators

I am studying how the Ethereum 2.0 version works. I have read the official documentation and in particular this. According to the information I found here, the maximum number of validators allowed is ...
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What is the aggregation_bits in beacon chain's Attestation?

The beacon chains Attestation data structure has an aggregation_bits class Attestation(Container): aggregation_bits: Bitlist[MAX_VALIDATORS_PER_COMMITTEE] data: AttestationData signature: ...
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Proof of authority Add or Remove Validators without forking

I am thinking about doing a project in Ethereum (currently open to any clients). How can I add or remove validators without hard fork? If a wallet (sender) is not a validator, can it send Ether to ...
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validator on ETH2 testnet - Attestations all Missed

I implemented this tutorial on coincashew on a Digital Ocean server, funded 32 ETH from a faucet from Discord. However my beacon chain explorer shows that all Attestations are missed. When viewing log ...
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Most efficient way to fetch daily rewards of a validator from Beacon API

I'm trying to fetch the daily rewards of a validator using the beacon API. The only way I'm able to do it now is by fetching the balance at each epoch within these days and summing it up, and then ...
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Can a contract be the Ethereum 2.0 validator balance owner?

As we know it's not that easy to become a validator because it requires to have 32 ether. There are bypasses for lesser balance owners like staking on various websites or exchanges who can compound ...
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How does a shard slot proposer have anything to propose?

Proposers of a shard slot are pseudorandomly chosen like on beacon chain. Every validator does not however have the mempool or the state of every shard there is. So, when assigned to propose a block ...
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2 answers
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Why are there between 64 and 128 attestations every slot if there's only 64 committees?

Every slot have between 64 to 128 attenstations but all only have 64 committees. Some of the attestations on slots are done by 128+ validators of one committees while another attestation could be done ...
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DDR4 vs DDR5 in setting up a ethereum node

Seems that set up a validator node is quite demanding on the computer specification. ( high storage, cpu with many cores, lots of memomry required) I was think whether DDR4 or DDR5 ram will be a ...
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How do contracts with timing functions get executed?

Let's say, there's a contract with timelock or vesting. In it there's a condition that check whether or not the right time has come, in order to release some tokens to some people. But said condition ...
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How do attestors know forger identity?

In eth2.0 POS, how do all nodes (attestors and validators alike) know that the person who has submitted a certain block was the person who won the right to forge it?
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How can there be a fork if only one validator is allowed to propose a block per slot?

As I understand it, one and only one validator get selected to propose the next block on the beacon chain. This means that the other validator attesting can only attest to one block right? (since ...
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Will there be two votes and two kinds of attestation in Ethereum 2.0?

I am reading this The Beacon Chain Ethereum 2.0 explainer you need to read first and I came across the following: Most of the time, validators are attesters that vote on beacon blocks and shard ...
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What is a crosslink in Ethereum PoS

I understand that Ethereum PoS will have validators that proposes blocks (instead of miners that mines blocks). IN all the description I am reading I am also coming across something called crosslink, ...
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2 answers
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Is there a way to validate only ethereum wallet address?

I'm not very familiar with cryptocurrency, but i need somehow validate ethereum wallet address. I've found a way, but it also accept token contract address. So is there a way to differ them, and only ...
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What is the incentive for people running execution clients in eth2

If I understand correctly, in the coming proof of stake version of Ethereum, there would be the beacon chain, with blocks on it created by validators. These validators will get compensated for doing ...
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Who gets the staking rewards? All committee? Or only node that proposes a block?

In the new POS Ethereum 2.0, who gets the staking rewards? All committee that attested? Or only node that proposes a block?
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1 vote
1 answer
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How are blocks actually added to the blockchain in Eth2

I think I understand the general idea of how blocks get mined in proof of work based Ethereum. Basically validators puts transactions in a block, then they race to find the hash with a particular ...
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1 answer
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How will the gas fee be allocated in ethereum 2.0?

Such as title, how will the gas fee be allocated to validator in ethereum 2.0? Will give it all to the block proposer? I don't see an explanation for this in the official documents. My idea is this: ...
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What is the process for actual validation of transactions?

What is the actual process of validating transactions on the blockchain? For example checking that no double spend has occured? I know PoW and PoS is more or less the mechanism used to select who get ...
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1 answer
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What type of validation happens in transaction propagation?

I am reading the Mastering Ethereum book and came across this piece: On average, each Ethereum node maintains connections to at least 13 other nodes, called its neighbors. Each neighbor node ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Does data in memory variables get added to the blockchain? How does consensus work for memory?

If a function call involves a memory variable, does the data in memory get added to the blockchain history? If no, how come others can validate the transaction? Is the data only deleted after a block ...
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What happens if the slashing protection history/database is a little outdated?

When a machine (machine A) with a validator running on it is dying for some reason, I would start it on another machine (machine B). To avoid slashing, I have to copy the slashing protection history (...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Staking when you have 0 ETH

I was wondering how could you become a validator (and get ETH reward) if it is required to have 32 ETH? Is it supposed that you bought 32ETH already? Or will there be another way to get ETH? Couldn't ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Why some validator have 2x32eth deposit?

I see some validators on beaconcha.in, for instance 0xae0a59afa484054a4960ee3699d7e518d9273ff65bab932d3217f69770a48ddfbe646d970a422c88adcff8117ce30f47 that have 2x 32eth deposit. The max active stake ...
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1 vote
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Sharding: What happens if an individual transaction is validated in multiple committees?

In Sharding idea, miners are divided into multiple smaller groups (committees), each of which, processes a subset of transactions that are distributed in the entire network. The question is how to ...
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What is the Probability of being chosen in Proof of Stake?

I'm trying to solidify my understanding of Proof-Of-Stake consensus, and one thing I've been left wondering is how to figure the probability of being chosen to be a validator. Are the chances of being ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What is the maximum number of validators in Ethereum?

I'm wondering how many validators can be maxed out in Ethereum 2.0 Proof of Stake algorithm?
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Validator selection

When validating a block, do validators know who the other validators are, prior to voting? Does the proposer know the other validators prior to proposing a block? If so, that could lead to collusion ...
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2 votes
1 answer
476 views

How long does it take to validate transactions?

It seems to be a common sense that validation process on the blockchain is very fast. I wonder how fast the process could be? How long does it usually take to validate a transaction? What will be done ...
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2 votes
0 answers
1k views

Geth node sync: best metrics to track progress of state trie download?

First time setting up a full node with Geth and was hoping someone could help me better track progress. Have been running for about 8 days and I believe geth is currently doing the "state sync&...
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2 votes
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Even if I own 51% of stake (or have 51% computational power) and try to cheat, can't others still see that my block is invalid?

I'm thinking about how proof of stake works exactly. As I understand, here is how it is secure: I cannot forge a tx where random A pays me X amount because I would need the private keys of A. ...
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0 votes
2 answers
1k views

If I send a transaction with a low gas fees and then send another one with high gas fee elsewhere?

Let's say, I send a transaction, all of my Ether, with low gas fees and it'll take hours for it to complete. Right away I send another one, from the same wallet or address, also all of my Ether, to ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What unit of time is used to calculate downtime penalties for Validators?

Is the penalty a function of the number of blocks you missed or is it calculated in some time unit like seconds?
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Proof of Stake leader-election [duplicate]

So I understand Proof-of-work high level, where nodes work to solve a "puzzle". And once they've created a valid block they then broadcast it to the network. So that node receives the reward ...
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After 48 hours, my validator request is still "Pending" (Deposited)

I'm playing around with Ethereum 2.0 Proof of stake for my upcoming guide Come fare staking con Ethereum 2.0 (italian only, sorry). I setup Go Ethereum and Nimbus, generated the required keys via eth2....
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2 votes
1 answer
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Does Ethereum 2.0 still have use cases for oracles, why?

It seems to me Ethereum 2.0 would only require that one node creates blocks at a time, does that make unnecessary oracles.
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Avoid Attester Slashing - Etherum2.0

According to specs, for attester slashing i need to compare the epoch with previous epoch my question is- is it enough to check that the current epoch with the last one i saved using ...
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1 vote
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Avoid Proposer Slashing - Etherum2.0

According to specs, for proposer slashing i need to compare the slot with previous block.slot my question is- is it enough to check that the current block slot is greater than the last block slot i ...
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1 vote
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How safe to run Lighthouse without --auto-register vs. the effects of registering more than once?

Running a Lighthouse validator presents a message to strongly consider running --auto-register the first time. The documentation also states: The --auto-register flag registers your signing key ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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How does eth2 Random Election Work?

In eth2 validators will be randomly selected. What is the formula for how this random selection works?
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5 votes
2 answers
1k views

How will one stake Ether?

Once Ethereum makes the switch to proof of stake how will one choose to stake Ether? Will they have to use a special program or will Ether not in use be considered staked and be used to gain more ...
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