Questions tagged [validators]

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What is the process for actual validation of transactions?

What is the actual process of validating transactions on the blockchain? For example checking that no double spend has occured? I know PoW and PoS is more or less the mechanism used to select who get ...
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1answer
18 views

What type of validation happens in transaction propagation?

I am reading the Mastering Ethereum book and came across this piece: On average, each Ethereum node maintains connections to at least 13 other nodes, called its neighbors. Each neighbor node ...
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1answer
26 views

Does data in memory variables get added to the blockchain? How does consensus work for memory?

If a function call involves a memory variable, does the data in memory get added to the blockchain history? If no, how come others can validate the transaction? Is the data only deleted after a block ...
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What happens if the slashing protection history/database is a little outdated?

When a machine (machine A) with a validator running on it is dying for some reason, I would start it on another machine (machine B). To avoid slashing, I have to copy the slashing protection history (...
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2answers
41 views

Staking when you have 0 ETH

I was wondering how could you become a validator (and get ETH reward) if it is required to have 32 ETH? Is it supposed that you bought 32ETH already? Or will there be another way to get ETH? Couldn't ...
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1answer
35 views

Why some validator have 2x32eth deposit?

I see some validators on beaconcha.in, for instance 0xae0a59afa484054a4960ee3699d7e518d9273ff65bab932d3217f69770a48ddfbe646d970a422c88adcff8117ce30f47 that have 2x 32eth deposit. The max active stake ...
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0answers
7 views

Sharding: What happens if an individual transaction is validated in multiple committees?

In Sharding idea, miners are divided into multiple smaller groups (committees), each of which, processes a subset of transactions that are distributed in the entire network. The question is how to ...
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0answers
27 views

What is the Probability of being chosen in Proof of Stake?

I'm trying to solidify my understanding of Proof-Of-Stake consensus, and one thing I've been left wondering is how to figure the probability of being chosen to be a validator. Are the chances of being ...
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1answer
551 views

What is the maximum number of validators in Ethereum?

I'm wondering how many validators can be maxed out in Ethereum 2.0 Proof of Stake algorithm?
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1answer
21 views

Validator selection

When validating a block, do validators know who the other validators are, prior to voting? Does the proposer know the other validators prior to proposing a block? If so, that could lead to collusion ...
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1answer
228 views

How long does it take to validate transactions?

It seems to be a common sense that validation process on the blockchain is very fast. I wonder how fast the process could be? How long does it usually take to validate a transaction? What will be done ...
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575 views

Geth node sync: best metrics to track progress of state trie download?

First time setting up a full node with Geth and was hoping someone could help me better track progress. Have been running for about 8 days and I believe geth is currently doing the "state sync&...
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Even if I own 51% of stake (or have 51% computational power) and try to cheat, can't others still see that my block is invalid?

I'm thinking about how proof of stake works exactly. As I understand, here is how it is secure: I cannot forge a tx where random A pays me X amount because I would need the private keys of A. ...
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2answers
916 views

If I send a transaction with a low gas fees and then send another one with high gas fee elsewhere?

Let's say, I send a transaction, all of my Ether, with low gas fees and it'll take hours for it to complete. Right away I send another one, from the same wallet or address, also all of my Ether, to ...
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0answers
7 views

What unit of time is used to calculate downtime penalties for Validators?

Is the penalty a function of the number of blocks you missed or is it calculated in some time unit like seconds?
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22 views

Proof of Stake leader-election [duplicate]

So I understand Proof-of-work high level, where nodes work to solve a "puzzle". And once they've created a valid block they then broadcast it to the network. So that node receives the reward ...
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90 views

Ethereum 2.0 - how to avoid being penalised when moving to a new location - is it possible to move the validator to the cloud?

Of course, I can test on testnet and try for myself but maybe you'll know. In the spirit of decentralisation, I would like to run my full node. But things change, I may want to travel (change location)...
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25 views

Algorithm to check if my ethereum account has successfully deposited to eth2 validators deposit contract

The eth2 phase 0 validators deposit contract implements a sparse merkle tree. Which algorithm can check if there is a successful deposit from my account? (Pseudo code)
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2answers
936 views

After 48 hours, my validator request is still "Pending" (Deposited)

I'm playing around with Ethereum 2.0 Proof of stake for my upcoming guide Come fare staking con Ethereum 2.0 (italian only, sorry). I setup Go Ethereum and Nimbus, generated the required keys via eth2....
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1answer
74 views

Does Ethereum 2.0 still have use cases for oracles, why?

It seems to me Ethereum 2.0 would only require that one node creates blocks at a time, does that make unnecessary oracles.
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37 views

Avoid Attester Slashing - Etherum2.0

According to specs, for attester slashing i need to compare the epoch with previous epoch my question is- is it enough to check that the current epoch with the last one i saved using ...
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0answers
59 views

Avoid Proposer Slashing - Etherum2.0

According to specs, for proposer slashing i need to compare the slot with previous block.slot my question is- is it enough to check that the current block slot is greater than the last block slot i ...
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0answers
10 views

How safe to run Lighthouse without --auto-register vs. the effects of registering more than once?

Running a Lighthouse validator presents a message to strongly consider running --auto-register the first time. The documentation also states: The --auto-register flag registers your signing key ...
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1answer
238 views

How does eth2 Random Election Work?

In eth2 validators will be randomly selected. What is the formula for how this random selection works?
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2answers
1k views

How will one stake Ether?

Once Ethereum makes the switch to proof of stake how will one choose to stake Ether? Will they have to use a special program or will Ether not in use be considered staked and be used to gain more ...