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Questions tagged [uncle-blocks]

An uncle block is a validated block that got a silver rather than gold medal, because another miner propagated a competing block more rapidly, and therefore won the “race” to become the next confirmed block on the blockchain. Uncle blocks get a fraction of the full block reward.

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Does the ETH blockchain have fundamentally more branching than BTC?

Intuitively speaking, ETH seemed to have simply increased the average block generation rate from one every 10 min in BTC to 1 every 15 seconds. There doesn't seem to be any other protection against ...
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How to update the balance of a wallet user when there are two competing chains?

I am building a wallet, and I have a question about uncle blocks. Let’s say our user sends a transaction, but there are two competing blockchains. If they both include her transaction, no problem. We ...
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About uncle block and event

Say one smart contract trigers an event after one transaction. if this transaction was recorded in one uncle block, then there will be one event, and after confirmed by main block , will there be ...
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what happens to the transactions inside an uncle block And what if a contract creation end up in an uncle block [duplicate]

Can anyone suggest what happens to the transactions inside an uncle block ? And what if a contract creation end up in an uncle block. The whitepaper(ethereum) does not give any information whether ...
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1answer
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“Uncle Chain” Rewards

I'm trying to understand What happens in case another block is mined over an uncle block (giving us an uncle chain) - is the first uncle still rewarded or only the latter? The blue blocks are the ...
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1answer
90 views

How to check uncle block when listening to new block?

I was reading the fantastic https://goethereumbook.org book and found this example to listen to new blocks from Ethereum. Could I ask in this case, how is uncle blocks handled? To put it in another ...
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1answer
197 views

Transactions in uncle block are lost

as the source code shows below: transactions in orphaned/uncle block are deleted from local db, but there're some posts say those txs would be put back to tx pool and would be packed later. So which ...
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1answer
204 views

Are uncle blocks unnecessary overhead on blockchain?

I have been learning about ethereum but now am stuck with conflicting thoughts about block times and stale blocks. Here is what I understood, please correct me if I am wrong. Block time for bitcoin - ...
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A doubt about forks and mining

Suppose I'm mining a block, and I still don't find the nonce. Suddenly I receive the mined block from another node. But when I try to validate it, I find it's not right. So I discard it. What happens ...
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uncle block' hash

I want to know if the Uncle Hash hashes the entire block or just the Uncle block header. Also I want to know Structure of Ethereum's Uncle List,too.I would appreciate it if you let me know.
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1answer
109 views

Detecting whether a transaction was cancelled (because a block is orphaned)

I'm writing a system where some transactions have to be automatically detected, and wait for 30 blocks to ensure they're confirmed. What I do is that I read all new blocks, and find the transactions ...
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104 views

Is there a way to check block mined was an uncle block?

From the reading I've been doing, uncles are not added to the blockchain but only there headers are stored. For uncles to be added to the blockchain, they need to be mined first. If this is the case,...
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1answer
240 views

Can I check for transactions in an Uncle Block?

I am writing a script which will crawl through all the transactions in each block one by one, and identify deposits made to a specific address. My question is, should I be checking for transactions ...
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What precisely classifies an off-chain block as a fork?

I am looking for validation (or invalidation) of my assumption of what strictly counts as a fork in Ethereum. If you start filters to multiple ETH nodes at the same time, you will very often see 2 or ...
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2answers
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Is a block number unique or does it change if the block becomes uncle? Does the transaction hash include a block hash as input?

Is a block number unique or do I need to save block hash to identify a block? Does transaction hash include a block hash as input?
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What are sha3Uncles and why are they mostly same for all blocks [duplicate]

I was looking at sha3Uncles in my chain and found it to be constant throughout. After looking at the example response to JSON RPC requests, I found the same value: ...
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How to make sure the transaction is not included in uncle block

If a transaction is included in the uncle block, neither the sender would be deducted nor the receiver would gain, is that right? Most clients or platforms use 12 confirmations, how would this ...
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1answer
91 views

Ethereum mempool transaction of Uncle and Fork nodes

In the Bitcoin network when a fork happens, the block transactions from the shortest chain are reinserted again into the mempool. In Ethereum instead we have Uncle blocks and Fork blocks. What ...
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1answer
615 views

Are uncle blocks included in blockchain

When miners M1 and M2 compete to mine block B and miner M2 mines it just after miner M1, his mined block is called ommer/uncle/orphaned. I read that these blocks (untill sixth generation) can be ...
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Uncle blocks and their Relationship to Chain Size

How much do uncle blocks affect the overall chain size? Is the amount of added security they provide for the chain comparable to how much extra data they add to the chain? If, for some reason, all ...
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1answer
174 views

In what cases if any, does a transaction get lost from the network forever?

Is it possible for a transaction that was included in the pending pool across multiple nodes, to become lost from the network forever (i.e. get dropped by all nodes)? If yes, in what cases is that ...
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1answer
293 views

I mined an uncle. When do i get paid?

There doesn't seem to be an answer to this question anywhere. Geth shows I mined an uncle. There's all kinds of discussions about what/where/and how uncles exist, but when does the miner get paid?
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1answer
295 views

Competing Trx in an uncle

How does Ethereum handle the integration of an uncle Block? Because, as far as I understand, there could be the possibility that an uncle contains a transaction, which compets with a transaction from ...
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Uncle timestamp validity

Regarding acceptance/rejection of uncle blocks, what are acceptable block timestamps for an uncle block? Say: block123_timestamp = Y uncle123_timestamp = X Where X < Y. Is uncle123 a valid uncle, ...
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1answer
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May last block on watch only client become stale?

Let we have an ethereum node which is for a watch purposes only (it doesn't create any transactions, just updates it's replica of the whole chain). To get notifications about top blocks in the chain ...
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1answer
402 views

How to get an uncle number using uncle hash?

Let's say, we have following block: https://ropsten.etherscan.io/block/7375 It has two uncles: 0xa9e3fe7090c12fd6db3cec305d21437b0c968188becafc099f4324964015d27a ...
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1answer
2k views

Different uncles reward [duplicate]

I'd like to understand how uncles reward is calculated. https://ropsten.etherscan.io/block/4447 https://ropsten.etherscan.io/block/2560 We have two calculated blocks, both of them have 2 uncles, ...
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Difference between uncle block and forked blocks

For example https://etherscan.io/uncles and https://etherscan.io/blocks_forked, what difference between them?
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1answer
345 views

Are there still uncles with proof-of-stake?

As I understand, with PoS the selected validator is determined within predictable time windows. Does this mean that uncles will be gone for PoS?
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1answer
659 views

How many Uncles (Ommer) can be included and how is the reward distributed

how many uncles can one block include? I think I read somewhere that you can only include maximum 2 uncles, is that true? If a block includes 2 uncles or more, how is the reward distributed between ...
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1answer
783 views

What happens to transactions in Uncles?

I understand that each node has a transaction pool, which is used for adding transactions to the block. What happens to the transactions when a miner's block is declared invalid? Also, how are ...
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3answers
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What is the exact “longest chain” rule implemented in the Ethereum “Homestead” protocol?

This paper from 2016 claims (in section 3.3.2, speaking about the actual Ethereum implementation as opposed to the specification) that: although uncle blocks that are included in a block receive a ...
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1answer
182 views

Solutions for orphan rate in Casper PoS? [closed]

What are some possible solutions to deal with the increased orphan rate when Ethereum shifts to its Proof-of-Stake system, Casper?
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2answers
435 views

How do miners decide which block should be an ommer block?

Let's say there is a fork and there are two valid blocks. How do the miners choose which block to work on if they receive both the valid blocks at the same time(Is this possible?)? After this decision,...
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1answer
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Should uncles factor into average network block time and difficulty calculations?

It's unclear to me if uncles should factor into averages like block time and difficulty. The fact that they are associated with a parent block and have a timestamp and difficulty, leads me to believe ...
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1answer
874 views

What are uncles? [duplicate]

E.g. Etherscan lists mined uncles here http://testnet.etherscan.io/address/0x7c0d52faab596c08f484e3478aebc6205f3f5d8c#uncle ? What are they and how they differ from normal blocks?
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1answer
1k views

How to check if a transaction is still in the blockchain?

Say we want to confirm that a value transaction tx has reached certain finality, which we define as waiting for 12 block confirmations. We do this to drop the probability of tx getting lost due a fork ...
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1answer
81 views

Is there a way to force uncle blocks generation in a testnet?

In a local testnet, what could be done to force uncle blocks generation? I'm mining with multiple geth instances (different accounts) on a common CPU and very low difficulty genesis block.
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2answers
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How do I know if a submitted block became an uncle?

We need to detect that the submitted work became an uncle. How would I do this with geth api? I thought of checking the submitted block number later for any uncles that match my block's hash. Is there ...
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2answers
2k views

Why am I getting less than 5 Ether per block?

Was something changed recently? I've been getting less and less ether per block - is this tied to difficulty level? I thought difficulty would affect the rate of mining a block, not the number of ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the significance of uncle rate?

What is the significance of uncle rate? Some Ethereum sites show an uncle rate in decimal, another shows the uncle count per 25 blocks. If there are many or few uncles, how important is that to the ...
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2answers
4k views

What is GHOST and what is its relationship to Frontier and Casper?

As high-level as possible without losing important meaning, what's the intuition behind GHOST? How is it currently implemented in Frontier? What will be different with GHOST in Casper?
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2answers
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What is an uncle/ommer block?

The Ethereum blockchain is described as containing "ommer" blocks, usually called "uncle" blocks by the general public. What is an ommer/uncle block, and why are they needed?