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Questions tagged [transactions]

The term "transaction" is used in Ethereum to refer to the signed data package that stores a message to be sent from an externally owned account.

18
votes
4answers
10k views

Does Web3.js have the functionality to create new accounts and unlock an account for a period of time for a series of transactions?

I want to create new accounts through my Dapp web interface and unlock a specific account so that transactions can be processed. I didn't see it in the web3.js documentation so wonder if that's on the ...
131
votes
2answers
23k views

What is the difference between a transaction and a call?

What is the difference between a transaction and a call? In some interfaces, I can interact with contracts via calls or via transactions. What is the difference between the two, and can contracts also ...
27
votes
2answers
4k views

Do contracts also have a nonce?

Do contracts also have a nonce and if so how is it calculated? Usual accounts have a nonce that is increased with every transaction. However, contracts can't make transactions, they can only make ...
-1
votes
1answer
323 views

What capacity is ethereum using recently?

What capacity is ethereum using recently? How many more people can use ethereum now? What is current blocksize, and what are all the data being broadcasted between nodes? I read that ethereum just ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

How to manipulate data in a Solidity smart contract?

I have a smart contract with some members which should get modified on certain events. For simplicity, let's imagine we have a greeter contract. If I call greeter.greet() in the JavaScript console, ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

How to resend a transaction not recognized by the network?

I've sent a simple transaction (no smart contract invocation) while my geth node had no peers attached. It created the transaction fine and returned a transaction identifier. Even with many nodes ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is an account not accepting the Ether sent to it?

If you check out the account 0xe358b3b9f29c67cb810c5184e6fde27d66ce036c you will see several incoming transactions with 100 Finney each. Yet the overall balance is 31 Finney. How is that possible? If ...
5
votes
1answer
701 views

How can contracts be designed to use gas refunds?

A transaction may have some gas refunds, but such refunds can only be used within the transaction: the gas refund is not converted to ether and refunded to the sender's account. How can contracts be ...
14
votes
2answers
1k views

Why was Frontier's “default” gasLimit = 3141592?

I've noticed this number at least in two places: On the Ethereum Network Status web page. In the sources of pyethereum. The number looks suspiciously familiar, and I keep asking myself: "Where ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Why are there no change addresses?

What's the concept behind ethereum transactions that allows them not to require change addresses? What's the underlying difference compared to - for example - bitcoin?
9
votes
1answer
676 views

How to avoid/detect multiple internal transaction out-of-gas side effects?

Following an issue I opened in github, this bothers me. The operation described in the issue, which happened during following avsa's tutorial on creating a DAO, generated two internals transactions as ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

What is the 0x I see around Ethereum? For example I see addresses that start with 0x

I see a number of things in Ethereum start with 0x, for example addresses. Other examples are in the Geth console, JSON-RPC, web3.js. What is the 0x and what is its purpose?
11
votes
2answers
740 views

What happens when two smart contracts recursively call each other?

As I understand it, a smart contract can "call" other smart contracts. So what happens when two smart contracts call each other in a recursive loop? Does the whole network break down and die?
21
votes
4answers
6k views

Does every node execute the contract code for each transaction?

This question was asked on Reddit a while ago: When a node sends a transaction to the network and has the receiver as a contract, does every node execute the contract bytecode with the inputs to ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

What are payment channels? Can they be implemented on Ethereum?

I've read bits and pieces on payment channels and the benefits it would provide for micro-transactions. For example, under the current fee structure, it's not wise to send micro transactions below ...
35
votes
3answers
11k views

What are the pros and cons of Ethereum balances vs. UTXOs?

Ethereum has a simpler model by not having UTXOs (Unspent Transaction Outputs) like Bitcoin. What does Ethereum "give up" by not having UTXOs, and what does it gain?
2
votes
1answer
294 views

How will the number of confirmations for security change with Casper?

How will this answer change when Casper is deployed?
53
votes
5answers
71k views

What number of confirmations is considered secure in Ethereum?

In Bitcoin, 6 confirmations are considered secure (very low probability of transaction/block reversal). What is the current number in Ethereum?
5
votes
1answer
118 views

Who keeps the Ether when a transaction triggers an exception?

An audit had "Strong Recommendation: We recommend that exceptions cause all value to be returned to the sender, not the recipient." What were the technical reasons for not implementing this ...
23
votes
3answers
11k views

What are the limitations to estimateGas and when would its estimate be considerably wrong?

web3.eth.estimateGas and JSON-RPC estimateGas can be used to see how much gas should be specified for a transaction, before crafting the transaction. Since it is an estimate, are there any ...
7
votes
2answers
200 views

Could a contract with enough Gas DDoS the network?

From what I understand, the idea of having to pay Gas for executing contracts is to prevent a malicious (or even non-malicious) contract from getting stuck in an infinite loop and consuming the ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Are there any limitations/regulations to be followed while wallet-wallet transfering?

Technical limitations similar to the ones which developers need to respect while crawling sites? And can automated scripts be written with the limitations in mind? What are the possible bottlenecks ...
12
votes
1answer
1k views

What if I had the private key that had the public address of a contract?

Could I spend the money a contract owns if I had the private key that goes to the public address that a contract resides at? (I realize that I'd have a better chance of being struck by lightning ...
21
votes
1answer
14k views

How do I know how much gas to use when calling a contract?

When I am calling (sending a transaction to) a contract how do I determine how much gas to use? Is there a way to calculate this upfront & what happens if I send too much / too few gas?
28
votes
1answer
3k views

Where is the private key for a contract stored?

This is a question that I am asked often by developers who assume that a contract has a private key of its own to sign any transactions that it makes.
66
votes
8answers
11k views

Can contracts pay the gas instead of the message sender?

Is it possible for a contract to pay the gas costs (or part of it) that result from the contract being called? Or does the sender of a message always pay the resulting gas costs no matter what?
196
votes
7answers
126k views

What is meant by the term “gas”?

An Ethereum application that I want to use talks about needing "gas" to run. What is gas, and where do I get it?