Questions tagged [protocol]

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21
votes
4answers
3k views

Are Whisper and Swarm still being developed?

I know that both Whisper and Swarm were is early prototype stages, with Whisper already being included in the geth client. What is the current status of these project? I know Swarm has been largely ...
15
votes
1answer
737 views

Why were empty accounts allowed to be on the blockchain?

It's hard to see what the benefits of allowing empty accounts to be on the blockchain are. This was a known subtlety (see "note: there is a difference between zero-balance and nonexistent") and ...
12
votes
1answer
6k views

What does “ERC” stand for?

As seen as a label for EIPs (Ethereum Improvement Proposals): https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/labels/ERC
12
votes
1answer
4k views

What is eWASM and why is it the direction for the next version of the EVM?

eWASM was first proposed in EIP 48 with performance advantages over the EVM. Are there other advantages since the EIP was written in 2015? The initial benchmarks are also gone and are there any ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

Why do smart contract languages need to be deterministic?

I read somewhere that smart contract languages need to be deterministic. Why?
10
votes
1answer
2k views

Why was RLP chosen as the low level protocol encoding algorithm?

Is this an ad-hoc decision? Why RLP? Is it specifically suited to something?
9
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2answers
1k views

Are Transactions originating from one account mined in nonce order?

Discussion in another thread raises an interesting point. how many transactions could be included in a new block from the same account? Since miners can opt to omit a known transaction from the ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Are there any other “smart contract standards” like ERC20?

QUESTION: I know that ERC20 is a token standard which means there are a set of functions that a contract has to include to be ERC20 compatible. I find this a clever approach and was wondering if ...
8
votes
1answer
301 views

Can you (as a node) manually choose what block to bet on in Casper?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. However, as nodes are betting on which block will be produced next, does that mean (as a node) you can ...
8
votes
1answer
129 views

Can the Ethereum ecosystem exist without the DNS and HTTP protocols?

I understand that DNS/HTTP is needed right now to serve the Dapps through human-readable names (e.g., mkr.market), but very soon it seems like this will be possible with a combination of ENS and Swarm ...
8
votes
1answer
390 views

Does more ether = more voting power in Casper?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. However, as nodes are betting on which block will be produced next, does that mean the more ether you ...
8
votes
4answers
1k views

How can I verify a secp256r1 signature using solidity

Sorry if you find these questions are basic, but I am new to encryption. As far as I know, Solidity have ecrecover function for this purpose, but it use secp256k1 signature. which I am intend to use ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

What underlying protocols are used to send packets between nodes, and how are messages encrypted?

In Ethereum, when we make transactions, which underlying protocol is used to send the packages over the network? And another question, are those messages are encrypted or not? TCP, UDP, others? All? ...
7
votes
1answer
786 views

How does Ethereum avoid mining pool centralization?

As a proof-of-work (PoW) based blockchain, how does Ethereum combat mining pool centralization, which can lead to an entity controlling the majority of hashing power?
6
votes
1answer
856 views

How are block proposals made in Casper?

A blog post says this about block proposals in Casper: A NXT-style random number generator is used to determine who can generate a block at each height; essentially, this involves taking missing ...
5
votes
2answers
499 views

What’s the role of the EVM in a plain ether transfer between Externally Owned Accounts?

In a plain ether transfer from one Externally Owned Account to another, for which the base fee of 21000 gas has been provided, how is the EVM involved if at all? I realize that the signature needs to ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

PoW, PoS and transaction conflict resolution. How does it work? Isn't PoS at risk here?

So I am trying to put my head around POS. And I have a question about transaction conflict resolution and whether there is an attack risk here. If I understand correctly how POS works, if there are ...
4
votes
1answer
328 views

How to get UTXO set using JSON API?

My blockchain development background is in Bitcoin, but it now seems to me that the most dynamic and interesting blockchain platform is Ethereum. In my quest to grok the Ethereum protocol I'm ...
4
votes
1answer
225 views

DEVp2p Wire Protocol tutorial on geth or Web3.js/Web3.py

I was looking to develop an application using ÐΞVp2p Wire Protocol and I'm having trouble finding an example or tutorial. I was able to find only ÐΞVp2p Wire Protocol's wiki. [Q] Does anybody has a ...
3
votes
2answers
213 views

devp2p protocol: support for data compression?

I am just wondering if the devp2p protocol, which is used for node to node communication, has support for data compression? I am asking this, because it could be useful for faster block propagation ...
3
votes
2answers
195 views

How do upgrades at Ethereum work?

How to make an upgrade, e.g. Metropolis, Casper etc, at Ethereum? I mean, if someone proposes an upgrade to Ethereum network, how can it be made concrete?
3
votes
1answer
685 views

What are the changes that will be included in the Metropolis/Byzantium network upgrade?

I see a number of EIPS are listed as Accepted Changes, but it is not clear if all the changes are for Metropolis/Byzantium, nor if all Metropolis/Byzantium changes are there.
3
votes
1answer
675 views

Where can I find documentation/specification for mining pool communication?

I am looking for documentation or specification of communication/protocol between client and pool. Is there some or do I have to dig into source code of geth? (Yes, I know about the RPC documentation,...
3
votes
0answers
37 views

DEVP2P character encoding - please clarify 'ASCII'

Please can someone clarify if DEVP2P wire protocol specifies byte-sized 7 bit encoding when it refers to 'ASCII'? i.e. 3 bytes
3
votes
0answers
37 views

Is there any way to generate cheap proofs of Ethereum's state?

A contract on the Ethereum network can interact with other contracts within it without requiring any proof, because the system itself defines methods for cross-contract communication (SEND, CALL). ...
3
votes
0answers
190 views

Simple hello packet

I am trying to generate a simple hello packet for handshaking with a remote Ethereum client using the encode method from the rlp library. from rlp import encode hello = bytearray(encode([0x00, 4, "...
2
votes
2answers
752 views

About contract kill and forensic investigation

Let’s say that I created a contract and, using that, I and other people, made many transactions which meaning is undoubtably proven reading the contract. At a certain point someone kills the contract ...
2
votes
1answer
178 views

Reference book on Ethereum?

When we search "Ethereum" keyword in Google or Amazom, we find a lot of books on this topic. I bought some kindle books, however they mostly talk about basic topics that are usually repeated in most ...
2
votes
1answer
873 views

Smart Contract vs. Dapp?

Can we say following proposition is correct? "every Smart Contract is a Dapp, but a Dapp may not be a Smart Contract."
2
votes
2answers
501 views

Verifying a transaction root by hand

Suppose I have a very simple block with one transaction whose hash is: 0xce70a6b3ae683183e9c4d7c5a22ed5e2cf1f82a38fa67acaa24124b42b258b4a And when I run eth.getBlock I get the following transaction ...
2
votes
1answer
353 views

Where is the ethereum network implementation?

I am new to ethereum and have been reading about all the new things in ethereum with respect to bitcoin's blockchain. I have read about the GHOST protocol for using secondary blockchains instead of ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

What are the design targets which the light client is being developed against?

For example: persistent storage? volatile storage? connectivity? The closest I could get to a definition for the above is the following: "1KB of data per 2 minutes". However the following remains ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Are block timestamps decentralized?

One thing I don't understand about the Ethereum protocol is how timestamps work. If I, as miner, have a reason to fiddle with timestamps (such as adding a few minutes to decrease the mining difficulty)...
2
votes
2answers
300 views

what is the protocol used in commuinication between ethereum blockchain nodes?

Let's say that we have many blockchain nodes managed by parity clients. what is the protocol used in communication between those nodes?
2
votes
1answer
70 views

Fork Choice Rule in Ethereum 2.0?

According to the "Fork choice rule" in Ethereum 2.0 (sharding), how to choose a branch in a fork? (A) or (B) ? (A) branch, which has the most blocks in it. (similar to "longest chain" rule in PoW)...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

Why account creation using CALL or SUICIDE costs 25000 gas? [duplicate]

CALL and SUICIDE both have additional cost of 25000 gas if it leads to account creation. At the same time, sending 1 wei in separate transaction costs only 21000 gas. Thereby if I am about to create ...
2
votes
1answer
119 views

The difference between web3.version.network and web3.version.ethereum

The return values of the commands web3.version.network and web3.version.ethereum are: web3.version.network = "The network protocol version" web3.version.ethereum = "The etherum protocol version." ...
2
votes
0answers
721 views

Difference between a Protocol Token and a Dapp Token?

I've seen tokens referred to as "protocol tokens" and "dapp tokens", as far as I can tell they are on in the same. Maybe a protocol token is simply a dapp token with a published ABI? There's even ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Can I arrange for refunded gas to go to the recipient instead of the sender?

I've sent some small test transactions around and noticed that, unless gas is precisely calculated, if you try to send everything in one address to another, the spare gas ends up in the sender's ...
2
votes
0answers
3k views

Does Ethereum has halving or anything equivalent?

Bitcoin has a halving which will likely happen around June 2020. Is there anything similar for Ethereum? If not, why?
2
votes
0answers
92 views

How can I launch public alternative (not private) chain on Ethereum protocol [closed]

What if I want to launch independent network using Ethereum protocol because current prices are too high for my purposes. Is that possible without forking and maintaining new codebase using geth or ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

RPC authentication in Ethereum?

As far as I understand Ethereum uses JSON-RPC to communicate between clients. What is the authentication mechanism? That is, how does the network know that the RPC request is coming from a legit ...
1
vote
1answer
795 views

How ethereum nodes sync with each other?

Ethereum network is essentially a distributed replicated database where each node is a replica and a "master" one. What happens when user submits a new transaction? It is submitted to some "pending ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Fetching block template from node

The most famous opensource pool uses eth_getBlockByNumber method with parameter "pending" to get block template and generate jobs from it. But now, in parity, I found that this parameter is deprecated ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Will Casper be “backwards compatible” with currently issued tokens such as ERC20 tokens?

With Casper now available for testing, does the protocol work with regular ERC20 tokens? For example if Casper becomes the main protocol for the whole Ethereum network and the old PoW method is gone,...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Is it possible to send a standard transaction with a gas limit < 21,000?

I've noticed that Parity and Geth will return the following error when sending a standard transaction with less than 21,000 gas: "Transaction gas is too low. There is not enough gas to cover minimal ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Reference a long-forgoten account

In the Etherem Blog Vitalik says: "but we do not store history older than 5000 blocks.". 1) Is it to be understood that the state Trie does not contain the state of accounts which were not in use ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

What would happen if someone tried to use Ethereum with a modified version of the client?

Let's say that I try to use Ethereum with a modified version of the client which does not follow all the rules of the protocol. What stops my client from being able to damage the Ethereum network?
1
vote
1answer
226 views

“abuse” contract initialization explanation

I've found this item on the Subtleties page https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Subtleties: If contract initialization returns an empty array, then no contract will be created. This allows you to ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Plasma protocol

How this protocol works, simple explain. How to do the exchange operation on this one? Best implimentation on your opinion? (subjective ofcouse)