Questions tagged [proof-of-work]

A proof-of-work (POW) system is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a computer.

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79
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6answers
159k views

What is the total supply of Ether?

In Bitcoin, the total supply is capped at 21 million BTC. Is the total supply of Ether capped? How much will be mined before the Proof of Stake (POS) transition, and how will POS affect the issuance ...
66
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5answers
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What's the difference between proof of stake and proof of work?

The Ethereum frontier network currently uses a proof of work (PoW) consensus algorithm, while a future version of the network plans to utilise a proof of stake (PoS) algorithm instead. What's the ...
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4answers
29k views

What proof of work function does Ethereum use?

The Ethereum frontier network currently uses a proof of work (PoW) based consensus algorithm. But which specific PoW function does that algorithm use, and why was it chosen?
21
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1answer
26k views

Is Ethereum ASIC resistant?

I've heard that Ethereum mining is ASIC resistant since it requires memory-hard hashing algorithms. However, why can't miners buy large DRAM and devote the memory to ASIC mining? What prevents miners ...
16
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2answers
7k views

What kind of hardware is required to mine on Ethereum?

The Ethereum frontier network has a customised proof of work algorithm called Ethash. What kind of computer hardware is required to mine with this proof of work algorithm?
16
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1answer
4k views

Can Proof of Stake (PoS) improve the number of Transactions per Second?

Currently Ethereum is using Proof of Work (PoW). From my understanding there is a limit of time between blocks for two reasons: Part of that time between blocks represents the time to solve the PoW ...
12
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3answers
9k views

Will a higher stake make more money in PoS?

Since I'm very new to this I'm just going to assume I'm getting it wrong. But here it goes anyway... The higher my stake, the more money I make. This is my raw understanding of how proof of stake ...
11
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2answers
4k views

How is the Two Generals Problem solved with proof of work?

Here is an email where Satoshi Nakamoto explains how PoW solves the Byzantine Generals' problem http://satoshi.nakamotoinstitute.org/emails/cryptography/11/ The proof-of-work chain is a solution to ...
9
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1answer
1k views

How to check if a transaction is still in the blockchain?

Say we want to confirm that a value transaction tx has reached certain finality, which we define as waiting for 12 block confirmations. We do this to drop the probability of tx getting lost due a fork ...
9
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1answer
431 views

Are there any plans to switch Ethereum's primary hash algorithm from Keccak-256 to SHA3?

The Ethereum project was started before the SHA3 standard was finalised, and currently uses an earlier version of Keccak-256 which does not precisely match the FIPS-202 standard for SHA. Are there ...
7
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1answer
778 views

How does Ethereum avoid mining pool centralization?

As a proof-of-work (PoW) based blockchain, how does Ethereum combat mining pool centralization, which can lead to an entity controlling the majority of hashing power?
6
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2answers
761 views

With POS, will Ether stay be a necessary fuel to run the network?

I'm curious to understand, how necessary will Ether be after the Ethereum network moves to Proof of Stake? I guess stake holders will be rewarded with Ether for voting on the correct next block. ...
6
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1answer
310 views

Can the PoW problem be changed without a hard fork?

I know that the PoW in Ethereum is based on Ethash and that some parameters are adjusted in order to maintain the average time between blocks to a certain value. Now my question is: does the Ethereum ...
6
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1answer
131 views

Support in Ethereum for PoWs algos other than Ethash

I read that Ethereum uses Ethash as proof of work algorithm. But since there are other PoWs like NeoScrypt (used by Phoenixcoin), scryptJane (used by LEOcoin). Is it possible to use the above ...
6
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1answer
2k views

How does ethminer interact with the various Etherum clients (e.g. geth, eth, parity) when mining? Does it affect mining efficiency?

Apologies for the rookie question, I'm very new to Ethereum. I wanted to make sure I understand correctly the distinction between an Ethereum mining client (i.e. ethminer) versus a just a client, such ...
5
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3answers
919 views

Is it possible to issue an Ethereum token with its own proof of work algorithm?

If I want to issue a token on Ethereum, but have that token function according to its own proof of work algorithm (for example, double SHA256 like Bitcoin), is it possible to do that? And if so how ...
5
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1answer
980 views

Is “Proof-of-work” a subset of “Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT)”?

Can we say that Proof-of-work is a type of Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) ? In other words, is PoW a subset of BFT ? Or they are two different categories? Please note that there is a similar ...
5
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3answers
457 views

Is it possible to verify Ethash PoW in a contract?

Reading on EtHash, I was thinking if it is possible to verify the current Ethereum Proof Of Work by a smart contract. There is an instruction SHA3, which computes 256-bit hash, but EtHash uses 512-bit ...
5
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1answer
178 views

Deliberate Slashing: Don't slashing and leaking incentivize DDOS attacks on smaller nodes? Won't this centralize POS more than POW, even?

In Ethereum's proposed proof-of-stake algorithm (POS): A traditional node operator can't host a node themselves (e.g. on a home network), someone could just DDOS their node to bring them offline. ...
5
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1answer
688 views

Proof of Work figures

I am focused on understanding Proof of Work (PoW) vs Proof of Stake (PoS). One idea I liked is that we can see the mining of a block as a lottery of probability P, where I buy a ticket of cost C ...
5
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1answer
1k views

PoW, PoS and transaction conflict resolution. How does it work? Isn't PoS at risk here?

So I am trying to put my head around POS. And I have a question about transaction conflict resolution and whether there is an attack risk here. If I understand correctly how POS works, if there are ...
4
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3answers
5k views

PoS, how will it prevent 51% attack?

Wouldn't it be possible for a government seeking to destroy the blockchain just "print out" the money for getting 51%? if they plan to bring the network down then the printing wont effect the fiat ...
4
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2answers
560 views

What property makes Proof of Stake easier to apply in permissioned blockchains?

There are a number of efforts driving towards the transition from the current proof-of-work towards proof-of-stake (more info here). Meanwhile proof-of-stake is already in use in some permissioned ...
4
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1answer
321 views

Why does Ethereum POW work fine in spite of short confirmation time?

Bitcoin confirmation time is about 10 mins. Ethereum confirmation time is about 12 sec. Why does Ethereum POW work fine even though confirmation time is shorter than Bitcoin's?
4
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1answer
1k views

How is the 1GB dataset generated, which is used by the Ethash algorithm?

I want to understand algorithmically how the 1GB dataset is generated and how it is updated based on block data in Ethash. I also would like to see, where in the code it is implemented in Go-Etherum. ...
4
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1answer
723 views

Has proof-of-stake been formally proved?

From my understanding Bitcoin solves the Byzantine's Generals Problem under the assumption that there's no attacker that control more than 50%+1 of the mining power and this has been studied and ...
3
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1answer
3k views

What algorithm Ethereum use POS(proof of shake) or POW(proof of work)?

I am very much curious to know what algorithm Ethereum is using and what is the impact of this algorithm in the current blockchain .
3
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3answers
3k views

Is POW required for a private blockchain?

PoW is a mechanism to keep block chain incorruptable from malicious nodes. Now in a private block chain where all nodes are supposed to be honest, what purpose PoW would serve? Would it not be just a ...
3
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1answer
789 views

Hashes per Ether, before and after PoS

What is the mean number of embedded hashes per Ether? If my understanding is correct, the Keccak-256 hash function is a fundemental unit of computational work on the Ethereum blockchain. Therefore ...
3
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1answer
213 views

Why are the dataset and MixHash required for Proof of Work?

From the yellow paper; for a block to be accepted as valid, an 8 byte number, n_rand, must be found that satisfies equation 253: = block header without n_rand and MixHash = difficulty = ...
3
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1answer
176 views

How does the network validate a block in PoS

In general PoS, the forgers stake their coins and then a validator chosen in a pseudorandom fashion gets the chance to validate a block. But how do the whole network validate it? In PoW, for example, ...
3
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1answer
644 views

How much time until the state data is PoW validated when using parity warp?

Ethcore claims parity --warp only takes one minute to sync the chain. I tried myself and it indeed takes around 2-3 minutes on my machine with a slightly bad connection. 0 ✓ user@hoster ~ $ parity -...
3
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1answer
154 views

When is a new block created?

I am currently reading an interesting book about solidity, and I'm reading about block creation. This gives a good overview: The book mentions that the maximum size of a block is determined by the ...
3
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2answers
90 views

How can I prove `sha256^1000000000(X) = Y` for a verifier that can't perform that much computations?

Suppose, for example, I want to write an Ethereum contract that pays 1 ETH for whoever gives me the right answer to sha256^1000000000("good boy"). That amount of computation would be much higher than ...
3
votes
1answer
986 views

Could I mine on Ethereum without storing any of the blockchain?

If a reference node provides an API so that I can read from their copy of the blockchain, could I run Ethash, do proof-of-work and claim rewards while not storing anything?
3
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1answer
72 views

Do economic bets by miners fail to ensure security if the Notional Value of a contract exceeds that of the largest such bets?

A Smart Contract could be written to track a notional value greater than that of the value of ethereum contained in the contract, or even that of the stake of the miners in Proof of Stake, or the ...
3
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0answers
366 views

What's the difference between Nakamoto consensus vs Proof-of-Authority vs BFT

Documentations all around the internet are filled with these terms to categorise consensus protocols. What is the difference between them. For example: many call parity's tendermint as a BFT type ...
3
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0answers
308 views

What is the category of the 2 consensus algorithms here presented?

From the Ethereum Wiki: In a private chain context, there are three consensus algorithms that make the most sense: Proof of authority - essentially, one client with one particular private key ...
3
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0answers
293 views

Can you implement Sharding in PoW? [closed]

Can you implement Sharding in a Blockchain with Proof of Work? And in a Blockchain with Proof of Stake? Thank you for clarification.
3
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0answers
163 views

general mathematical description of Pow algorithms

Is it possible to consider a chain of blocks as an acyclic graph, where to add the next block (or node, if we are thinking about the blockchain as a graph), it is necessary to solve a computationally ...
3
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0answers
165 views

What makes the blockchain immutable in Proof-of-Stake? [duplicate]

In Proof-of-Work, it's difficult to edit/delete data on the blockchain because of the millions of hashes performed before generating a block. It would be impossible for a single attacker to have 51% ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Are miners eliminated in Proof of Authority?

According to this blog post by Vitalik on April 1st 2017, Ethereum will move from Proof of Work to Proof of Authority in 2018. He states: We have decided that the problem is too hard, and secure ...
2
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2answers
37 views

Does the ETH blockchain have fundamentally more branching than BTC?

Intuitively speaking, ETH seemed to have simply increased the average block generation rate from one every 10 min in BTC to 1 every 15 seconds. There doesn't seem to be any other protection against ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Can't we incentivize miners to include more transactions in their block?

If you go to etherscan.io, you can see that each block has the different number of transactions. Can't we incentivize miners(e.g. give more rewards ) to include more transactions in their block so ...
2
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1answer
208 views

Unable to understand PoW Algorithm?

As per my current understanding PoW algorithm is to ensure that only the decided number of blocks are made in a time frame and we adjust difficulty accordingly. I'm a beginner in Solidity and Ethereum ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Does ethereum support merged mining?

Ethereum uses the algorithm Hashimoto to mine for ether, other altcoins such as Expanse also use the same algo. Like bitcoin and namecoin, can ethereum and expanse be merge mined? (and how can it be ...
2
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1answer
198 views

Using Custom PoW Algorithm with Parity?

If I wanted to create a PoW alrorithm to replace ethash on a private blockchain, how would I tell Parity to use it?
2
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2answers
276 views

From Proof-of-Stake to Proof-of-work

Have any (cryptocurrency + blockchain)s switched from proof-of-stake to proof-of-work?
2
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1answer
1k views

Does next hard frok (initial PoS implementation) remove difficulty bomb?

To my understanding, we now started something called ice age period where difficulty bomb becomes harder exponentially and this was implemented to make sure everyone switches to new PoS chain when it ...
2
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1answer
156 views

How is difficulty used by mining clients?

I understand how it's calculated and what its intent is. I'm unsure of how the value is being used in practice.