Questions tagged [proof-of-work]

A proof-of-work (POW) system is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a computer.

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How to write a custom bridge (for testnets)

I have two private testnets running on a network - one is Ethereum using PoW consensus and the other is running Ethereum with PoS consensus i want to create a bridge between them - say i want to move ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
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How to check if a certain hard fork is enabled in your network?

We are running a private PoW (Proof of Work) network on geth I would like to know, how can i determine if a certain hard fork is enabled on my network ? For instance, how will i check if the London ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
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Why is Proof of Work considered to have no Economic Finality

In this article I read that Proof of Work has no Economic Finality. As I understand concept of economic finality is when for given block B, the consensus algorithm guarantees that if B is finalized, ...
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How "hybrid pow/pos" worked on Ethereum prior to the merge?

So I read this article, which explains how Proof of Stake works in ethereum, I think I understand how blocks are proposed, and how are they attested and then finalized to be part of the main chain. I ...
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To what extent was the block hash malleable under proof-of-work?

To emphasise, I’m solely interested in blocks prior to the transition to PoS. Given that a miner making any change to the block header would have resulted in a completely different hash, my thinking ...
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How can i convert Ether from the PoW chain in to Ether on the PoS chain?

I am basically looking to convert the ETHW (proof of work Ether) to PoS ETH ( proof of stake ether ) and i understand that ETHW has no contract address, since it is NOT an ERC-20 token instead it is a ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
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Calculating difficulty and target with 256 bits

Why do the yellow paper and Ethereum implementations use 2**256 instead of 2**256 - 1 when calculating hash target from difficulty? The Ethereum Yellow Paper uses 2**256 / difficulty to define the ...
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make a new PoS blockchain with geth (go-ethereum)

many tutorials out there tell how to create personal PoA or PoW chain with go-ethereum(geth), how to create a PoS based blockchain with go-ethereum ?
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Why do we still pay gas in proof-of-stake?

When Ethereum was on a proof-of-work business model, gas had to be paid to miners to execute transactions. Now that the miners are gone in the new proof-of-stake system, why are we still paying gas on ...
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How to create Proof of Stake node?

I need to create a Proof of Stake node Ethereum but I'm not be able to find the solution. I know how to create PoA and PoW networks but have no idea about PoS. e.g to create a PoA network we need to ...
Ajaypratap Yadav's user avatar
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Verifying Transactions before Finding Nonce

I am trying to learn theoretical fundamentals of Blockchain. In PoW, the miner who finds the nonce first gets to create next block and all other nodes add that block. Now, what I don't understand ...
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Is it possible to independently validate the whole chain in the ethereum?

In PoW system, a node can trustlessly check for validity of the whole chain just by checking the hash of every block correspond to the prev hash in the descendant block header. As far as I know in the ...
Amir reza Riahi's user avatar
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2 answers
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Why is the block limit so low?

The Ethereum block limit is currently 30M gas. From what I have read elsewhere, this limit has been ostensibly chosen so as to ensure that processing transactions remains feasible for consumer grade ...
Dom's user avatar
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Transaction order in Ethereum Proof of Work

My Question is: How does picking and ordering transactions connect to Proof of Work Consensus Let me explain a little bit more: I'm confused about a concept in Proof of Work (PoW) on Ethereum. I ...
Joseph Roccisano's user avatar
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How can a smart contract deployed on Mainnet know if it is running on PoW or (in the future) PoS?

I'd like my smart contract to know if it's running on PoW or (in the future) PoS in Mainnet. Does checking for block.difficulty solve the problem? If so, what will be the value of block.difficulty ...
vrde's user avatar
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What is the incentive for people running execution clients in eth2?

If I understand correctly, in the coming proof of stake version of Ethereum, there would be the beacon chain, with blocks on it created by validators. These validators will get compensated for doing ...
Finlay Weber's user avatar
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publishing blocks with delay

this is rather a simple and fundamental question but nevertheless i couldn't find any solution for it and now I'm worried if it can cause real attacks to slow blockchains. imagine in a form of ...
Jack Sparrow's user avatar
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What controls the inter-block interval in proof-of-stake?

In proof-of-work, the interval between 2 blocks is controlled by the mining difficulty: in Bitcoin, at all times, it must take roughly 10 minutes to mine a block, so every two weeks we adjust the ...
JacopoStanchi's user avatar
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High Block Validation

Suppose node A is running on height 2000. Node B sends to node A block with height 2002. Node A is not able to validate the block without having a block with height 2001. How does node A behave in ...
Кирилл Волков's user avatar
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How to reverse engineer ETH POW

If I store 10 blocks from Ethereum, with the block difficulty, mixHash and nonce etc. Transactions etc. Is it possible for me to back trace that the information I have stored is actually correct and ...
user2755537's user avatar
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Does a Proof of Authority network consume much less energy than a PoW/PoS one?

One of the main problems of PoW networks like Bitcoin or Ethereum is its energy consumption. Question 1: does this get solved with PoA networks?(without taking in account that these are not really ...
Daniel Lauzurica's user avatar
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Is there a mistake in this passage about the requirements on the block header nonce?

It says that PoW evaluates to an array with the first item being the mix-hash, and the second item being a pseudo-random number. However, from equation 49, it would seem it is the second item, m, ...
Matt Bonnell's user avatar
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Even if I own 51% of stake (or have 51% computational power) and try to cheat, can't others still see that my block is invalid?

I'm thinking about how proof of stake works exactly. As I understand, here is how it is secure: I cannot forge a tx where random A pays me X amount because I would need the private keys of A. ...
SpaceMonkey's user avatar
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Ethereum2.0 Shard chains will be PoW or PoS

I'm sorry if this is a basic question. But will the new shard chains for Ethereum2.0 be PoW or PoS? I know the plan is for Eth1 mainnet to "dock" onto the beacon chain eventually and be its ...
webbyweb's user avatar
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Why don't blockchains use simple voting based consensus algorithms?

Suppose we have an malicious agent Bob with account balance of 100 units trying to double spend a coin by broadcasting two messages simultaneously: A: Bob sends Alice 100 units B: Bob sends Emily 100 ...
Syed Fahad's user avatar
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How are difficulty of finding a proof of work dynamically regulated without a central body? [duplicate]

The probability of a miners to mine a block dynamically changes so that blocks are mined at regular intervals.How does block chains accomplish this without a central regulating body,
Thulashitharan D's user avatar
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1 answer
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“Universal Proof of Work” with SNARKs?

If SNARKs are able to prove computations of arbitrary complexity and difficulty were executed correctly, would it be possible to use them to create a Proof of Work system where ANY computation can be ...
Sam Parker's user avatar
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Ethereum vs bitcoin technology [closed]

I have understood how bitcoin works (coinbase block, mining, links between transactions, hashrate, nounce, proof of work, ...) Now i want to understand how Ethereum works. Can we say it is the same ...
Bob5421's user avatar
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When an Ethereum transaction event occurs, is there a case when it was not included in the main chain later due to a fork?

I know Ethereum is a POW blockchain where forks take place. The transaction event is issued after executing the transaction on the node. If a fork occurs, is there a possibility that the transaction ...
Hoonki's user avatar
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Does successful mining require the block's transactions in advance?

Typically a miner decides which transactions go inside a block. But does this have to be so? Is the actual mining process just a process to find the right nonce regardless of block contents or does it ...
Lauri Peltonen's user avatar
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What if difficulty exceeds the length of a fixed sha256 hash in proof of work?

Hello im a newbie in Blockchain, i got to know some basics, but im confused that what if the difficulty exceeds the length of a sha256 fixed length string example : The fixed length is here 64 (sha256)...
Venson De Laquira's user avatar
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Is Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding Ethereum) only PoS based? Or a combination of PoW + PoS?

Does Ethereum 2.0 (Sharded Ethereum) only use PoS (Proof-of-stake) for consensus mechanism ? Or Does it use a combination of PoW + PoS ?
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Why does proof of work targeted zeros always comes at the start of hash? why is it not in the middle or the end of hash?

My question is why always targeted zeros come at the start of hash of the block? I have never seen more than 2 zeros in middle or somewhere else in the hash of mined block... What's the reason?.... ...
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Resources of a miner's reward in Ethereum?

To compensate the miner who could solve the PoW as the first one, they will receive some coins as a reward for keeping them motivated due to the costs related to mining process (electricity and ...
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how transaction in block-chain is validated

Please explain complete procedure/journey how transaction in block-chain get validated by miners, From broadcast of transaction to become part of new block.
Haider Yaqoob's user avatar
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PoW in Public blockchain Vs. PoW in Private blockchain

I am reading about consensus mechanisms in blockchain and it is stated that PoW (Proof of Work) requires longer confirmation time compared with voting-based mechanisms. But some things are not clear ...
SaliaMun's user avatar
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3 answers
247 views

Why is PoW needed to confirm transactions and add new blocks [closed]

I have read and I vaguely understand about how Proof of Work works and what does it do. But why PoW? Or more bluntly, why do we need any algorithm at all to add new blocks. What would happen if ...
aash's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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What should I prepare for the coming ETH 2.0 upgrade as a Dapps developer?

As announced, Ethereum is expected to be its upgraded version Eth2.0 probably from 2020. There will be several upgrades like PoW to PoS/Casper FFG eWasm integration sharding (Casper CBC) These ...
kohshiba's user avatar
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Why 51% hash power require to control the network?

Why 51% is explicitly mentioned to get control over the network?. Why not 50 or lesser ?. Anyway there is no central authority to decide, whether 51% is attained or not?.
Naveen Kumar's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

When is a new block created?

I am currently reading an interesting book about solidity, and I'm reading about block creation. This gives a good overview: The book mentions that the maximum size of a block is determined by the ...
Trace's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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Does the ETH blockchain have fundamentally more branching than BTC?

Intuitively speaking, ETH seemed to have simply increased the average block generation rate from one every 10 min in BTC to 1 every 15 seconds. There doesn't seem to be any other protection against ...
reedvoid's user avatar
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How to make atomic swap between Ethereum and POS chain?

There's simple way to make atomic swap for smart-contact chain and any POW chain. For example for Ether <> BTC: Alice sends some Ether to the swap smart-contact which locks this money. While ...
lebed2045's user avatar
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1 answer
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How are transactions ordered in POS?

With POW, the miners who finds the block chooses the order of transactions in that block. How will this work with POS?
python_crypto_questions's user avatar
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1 answer
3k views

How does the network validate a block in PoS

In general PoS, the forgers stake their coins and then a validator chosen in a pseudorandom fashion gets the chance to validate a block. But how do the whole network validate it? In PoW, for example, ...
tanjan's user avatar
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How feasible it to combine Proof of Work and Proof of Elapsed time consensus to create a custom blockchain?

I wonder if it feasible to create your own custom consensus by combining Proof of Work and Proof of Elapsed time? How would I approach it? Any tools or frameworks to build it? I appreciate all the ...
monkrus's user avatar
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5 votes
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Deliberate Slashing: Don't slashing and leaking incentivize DDOS attacks on smaller nodes? Won't this centralize POS more than POW, even?

In Ethereum's proposed proof-of-stake algorithm (POS): A traditional node operator can't host a node themselves (e.g. on a home network), someone could just DDOS their node to bring them offline. ...
nick carraway's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
877 views

Who generates the mathematical problem for miners?

In POW miners solve an problem for successfully mining a block, who provide the question to the miners ?, does all miners work on same problem ?, and how the miners verify the answer ?, if the problem ...
Tharun Prabakaran's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
281 views

Can't we incentivize miners to include more transactions in their block?

If you go to etherscan.io, you can see that each block has the different number of transactions. Can't we incentivize miners(e.g. give more rewards ) to include more transactions in their block so ...
sflow's user avatar
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what does memory hard mean in ETH POW? [duplicate]

I came across the term memory-hard while ready about ETH POW algorithm. What does it mean when someone says that POW is memory hard?
Krishna's user avatar
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Transaction throughput: POA vs POW in private blockchain networks

I know that proof of work is resource intensive, while proof of authority is much faster as no consensus is required since the network is validated by the proper authorities. But in terms of the ...
abed's user avatar
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