Questions tagged [proof-of-stake]

proof-of-stake is a method by which a blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus by asking users to prove ownership of a certain amount of an asset.

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Are miners eliminated in Proof of Authority?

According to this blog post by Vitalik on April 1st 2017, Ethereum will move from Proof of Work to Proof of Authority in 2018. He states: We have decided that the problem is too hard, and secure ...
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Will there be mining pools with the Proof-of-Stake?

Ethereum will eventually move to Proof-of-Stake algorithm. I guess it is a very basic question, but how the mining pools are supposed to work in that case (if at all)?
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What will the ETH inflation rate be after PoS is released? [duplicate]

Has the Proof of Stake emission schedule been decided yet? What will be the rate of inflation? Is 2017 for the end of PoW still the best estimate?
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Fork in Proof-of-Stake?

Regarding the fact that in Proof-of-Stake, a stakeholder will be elected randomly as the next author of the next block in each epoch (or each round or slot), logically, in each round (or slot) there ...
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32 views

Is Casper FFG still going to be implemented?

What is the status of Casper FFG within the ETH 2.0 roadmap. Is the plan still that it will be implemented with Phase 0 or Phase 1? Or is the plan to adopt Casper CBC instead, and forgo implementing ...
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How are block proposers selected in Ethereum 2.0?

i'm doing some research about Ethereum 2.0 for university. I think i understand the way it works, but i have a perplexity about the proposer selection in a slot, especially after reading the codes ...
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1answer
304 views

Hidding IP address behind sentry nodes

I would like to know how to set up an Ethereum node behind sentries (proxy nodes). I know there are several ways to approach this issue as mentioned here. https://medium.com/@kidinamoto/tech-choices-...
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Is the mauve paper still actual?

I would like to know if the mauve paper is still actual or it is better to rely on the sharding FAQ and Proof of stake FAQ or on other sources?
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166 views

Reason for World State

All Ethereum blocks contain a stateRoot field - That is, the root hash of the world state trie. I have two questions about that. From what I've understood through all the reading I've done on Casper ...
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71 views

Why do proof of stake protocols use quorums of 2/3 instead of 51%?

I've noticed many protocols using validators like Casper, Tendermint, EOS require 2/3 of nodes (weighted) as the quorum requirement. What's the reasoning for using this seemingly arbitrary number? ...
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Proof of stake. What is liveness?

I'm studying proof of stake. I haven't found a clear definition of what "liveness" is. It is a main thing in PoS content, but I don't think I understand it clearly.
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From Proof-of-Stake to Proof-of-work

Have any (cryptocurrency + blockchain)s switched from proof-of-stake to proof-of-work?
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Does next hard frok (initial PoS implementation) remove difficulty bomb?

To my understanding, we now started something called ice age period where difficulty bomb becomes harder exponentially and this was implemented to make sure everyone switches to new PoS chain when it ...
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Proof of Stake - Let's get down to brass tacks and understand it

I have read six different articles now trying to understand this fully and completely and have been unable to get to that point. I get that you are giving the validator/forger chosen with the ...
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What is network weight and my weight?

What does it mean by my weight and the network weight in POS ? -Thanks.
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1answer
391 views

ETH vs Tokens price issue [duplicate]

Is there any possibility for one token (e.g. Augur's REP) to become more valuable than the total Ether market cap? If so, how would that be possible? In Security of PoS if/when Assets (Tracked or ...
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What is the network overhead of Casper?

In Bitcoin the PoW mining has very little overhead in terms of bandwidth. The miners simply need to produce the PoW, which I believe is 32 bytes per 10 minutes. In Casper I understand every validator ...
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564 views

What is the set number of Ether in existence during POW and then POS? [duplicate]

How many Ether exist during POW and then POS? Is it unlimited inflation?
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439 views

Nothing at Stake problem - eth wiki

I am trying to understand proof of stake consensus. I found some explanation about the "nothing at stake problem at the Ethereum wiki. Here is the part about the "Slasher"-solution i don't understand:...
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What will be the gas price when Eth will use Proof Of Stake?

I know that the cost of a transaction is gasUsed * gasPrice. Gas used cannot really change unless you change your smart contract code or the gas cost of EVM opcode. So the gas price is currently ...
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What is the economically efficient hardware setup for proof-of-stake mining?

As I understand it, if/when proof-of-stake is fully adopted, all those GPUs will become practically worthless for mining. (Presumably they'll be dumped onto the secondhand market or redeployed for POW ...
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Solutions for orphan rate in Casper PoS? [closed]

What are some possible solutions to deal with the increased orphan rate when Ethereum shifts to its Proof-of-Stake system, Casper?
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1answer
734 views

What does PoS formula mean in Vitalik's blog post?

I don't understand what exactly the PoS formula means in Vitalik's blog post On Stake on the Ethereum blog: SHA256(prevhash + address + timestamp) <= 2^256 * balance / diff Why do you need to ...
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Transaction confirmation time with proof of stake [duplicate]

With proof of work and the associated mining process, transactions must wait till the block verifying the said transaction reaches enough depth within the blockchain to avoid relying blocks generated ...
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Even if I own 51% of stake (or have 51% computational power) and try to cheat, can't others still see that my block is invalid?

I'm thinking about how proof of stake works exactly. As I understand, here is how it is secure: I cannot forge a tx where random A pays me X amount because I would need the private keys of A. ...
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How to make atomic swap between Ethereum and POS chain?

There's simple way to make atomic swap for smart-contact chain and any POW chain. For example for Ether <> BTC: Alice sends some Ether to the swap smart-contact which locks this money. While ...
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How is the block interval constrained in Ethereum 2.0

Sorry if i get any of the terminology wrong here, i'm no expert when it comes to PoS protocols. How does Ethereum 2.0 control for blocktime, typically we have the idea of a function that can be ...
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1answer
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Where do penalties for being offline go? (for validators)

Where do penalties for being offline go? (for validators) In POS when validator is being offline he loses part of its stake (depends on correlation with other validators being offline aka partial ...
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What is the point of switching to ProgPOW for ethereum, when POS is coming in the coming year(s)?

With the recent discussion of the new ProgPOW mining switch. What is the point of it when POS is coming in the coming year(s)? I understand it disables the ASIC miners, while benefiting the GPU miners....
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Is there a temporal reward in Casper, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?

In Casper, the consensus-by-bet proof-of-stake system, is there a temporal reward, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?
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How does Casper record votes efficiently?

I keep reading about Casper doling out rewards and punishments for voters based on how they're voting. If I am understanding this correctly, it seems that Casper punishes nodes that submit votes to ...
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Casper Friendly Finality Gadget - Greater degrees of transaction/settlement finality over existing PoW?

With Casper Friendly Finality Gadget, can one expect greater degrees of transaction/settlement finality over existing PoW?
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Method for staking coins in Casper FFG

When Ethereum changes to a PoW/PoS hybrid (Casper FFG), how will the staking process work? I heard that there might be smart-contracts and you need to send your coins to the contract to stake the ...
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Who proposes blocks in Ethereum Casper the Friendly Ghost

I am trying to understand how CTFG is supposed to work. The available online blogs provide a fairly high-level overview. What I have understood so far is that validators will bet on the blocks as they ...
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Casper protocol: is it right?

I'm reading about Casper protocol and the hybrid solution that Ethereum is going to adopt in the first place. Can you tell me if I understand the mechanism well? The hybrid solution initially ...
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Does Proof-of-Stake mining also process contracts?

I've read that Proof-of-Stake (POS) mining 'secures the blockchain' but does it also process contracts and collect gas?
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In consensus-by-bet, are all bets registered on the chain?

From Vlad: Validators bet independently on blocks at every height (i.e. block number) by assigning it a probability and publishing it as a bet. Through iterative betting, the validators elect ...
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Why is there a limit to number of validators?

In Casper and consensus-by-bet, validators make bets, and converge on a block at each block height, etc. In the Casper PoCs so far, the number of validators at any given block has been limited to 250, ...
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Investing in mining still worth it? [closed]

I recently read that Ethereum will be switching from PoW to PoS soon, will this kill GPU mining? I'm asking since I'm looking to build myself a miner as both a summer project and a way to make some ...
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Does Ethereum has halving or anything equivalent?

Bitcoin has a halving which will likely happen around June 2020. Is there anything similar for Ethereum? If not, why?
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Does EIP 134 allow a variants on PoS where everything is at stake?

EIP 134 allows a transaction to specify which chain it is occur on. In its original inception, this would be accomplished by specifying a recent block of the desired chain and a number 0-255 that ...
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Is switching to Proof of Stake (PoS) makes GPU mining worthless? [duplicate]

Is switching to Proof of Stake (PoS) makes GPU mining no longer available?
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How is Ethereum's Proof-of-Stake different from Peercoin and NXT's Proof of Stake? [duplicate]

Currently peercoin and nxt are one of the few POS coins out there. How is Ethereum's POS different from these 2 and others if they are available?
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I argue that Proof Of Stake will consolidate ether holdings rather than decentralize them. Am I wrong? [closed]

I am skeptical of the argument that proof-of-stake will decentralize ownership. The argument in favour of it is that POS has lower capital requirements, so easier entry to the market. That makes sense,...
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1answer
418 views

How blocks are calculated in POS

In POS people bet on the blocks to be added to chain and the honest block wins and the people who have voted for honest blocks get a share in the rewards. But one thing i am still confused is, who ...
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3answers
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What is the status of Proof of Stake?

Many different PoS approaches have been proposed but I am having a hard time finding documents that explain exactly how their protocols work. So, what are some current implementations of PoS? Where ...
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1answer
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How nodes are discovered with PoS?

On the PoW model, in order to find the proper network all you need is the address of a single correct node. You're able to identify the proper network by simply picking up the one with the most ...
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1answer
546 views

Has the Hard fork (and surrounding issues) affected the planned transition from Proof of Work to PoS

There was a lot of talk about Ethereum switching from PoW to PoS some time this year. Has the DAO and the Hard Fork delayed or otherwise affected when that might happen?
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How to adjust “time slots” in Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding + PoS)?

In Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding and PoS), blocks are produced at a regular schedule, say once every t seconds. What does this time slot depend on? The number of validators in the network who deposited ...
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How are transactions ordered in POS?

With POW, the miners who finds the block chooses the order of transactions in that block. How will this work with POS?