Questions tagged [proof-of-stake]

proof-of-stake is a method by which a blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus by asking users to prove ownership of a certain amount of an asset.

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Plasma.io: What if someone is offline during a mass withdrawal?

I'm reading the Plasma paper published a couple months ago, and on page 27, they talk about "Adversarial Mass Withdrawals" in the event of block withholding. My question is, what if someone is ...
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Proof of Work figures

I am focused on understanding Proof of Work (PoW) vs Proof of Stake (PoS). One idea I liked is that we can see the mining of a block as a lottery of probability P, where I buy a ticket of cost C ...
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Should I consider building a mining rig with PoS being so close?

I am just curious if in your opinion it is worth building a small rig. Probably looking at 2 or 3 Radeon 7950s or R7 370's and going from there, I am a little worried about the proof of stake ...
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PoW, PoS and transaction conflict resolution. How does it work? Isn't PoS at risk here?

So I am trying to put my head around POS. And I have a question about transaction conflict resolution and whether there is an attack risk here. If I understand correctly how POS works, if there are ...
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Does Casper FFG in phase 0 take its checkpoints from the current ETH 1.0 POW chain?

Does Casper FFG in phase 0 take its checkpoints from the current ETH 1.0 POW chain? I'm reading some conflicting material on this. The Casper FFG paper describes taking a checkpoint at every 50 POW ...
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Proof of Stake - Timeslots

In PoW several nodes compete to be elected. If n1 does not get elected eventually nX will be elected. So PoW does clearly not need such a concept of timeslots. In PoS lets say a node gets elected via ...
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Redundant PoS node setup

This is a question regarding to computer networks and high availability with remote nodes but it relates directly to Proof-of-stake so I think this would be the place to ask instead of superuser, ...
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PoS, how will it prevent 51% attack?

Wouldn't it be possible for a government seeking to destroy the blockchain just "print out" the money for getting 51%? if they plan to bring the network down then the printing wont effect the fiat ...
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Proof of Concept Ethereum

i knew about proof of Work and proof of Stake in term of Ethereum. But recently i heard something about proof of concept in Ethereum. Can anyone explain what it means by proof of concept? How does it ...
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Block time and block size in Eris

I've seen in a video that the target block time for Casper will start with 4 seconds. Eris (now Monax) is using Tendermint which is also a PoS algorithm. What is the block time in an Eris blockchain?...
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What property makes Proof of Stake easier to apply in permissioned blockchains?

There are a number of efforts driving towards the transition from the current proof-of-work towards proof-of-stake (more info here). Meanwhile proof-of-stake is already in use in some permissioned ...
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When and if ETH converts to PoS who will receive the staking rewards?

For ETH stored on online exchanges will the exchanges receive all staking rewards or will they be passed along to their users that actually own the ETH?
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Understanding economic finality in PoW and PoS

Before I get into the question I wanted to point out that I am referring to a specific part of a specific article. You don't actually have to read the article to help with the question but it's here ...
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Will pooled staking be implemented using multisig deposits?

Would this be a valid implementation for an ether staking pool if the goal was to eliminate the need for depositors to forfeit control of their ether to the pool owner? Depositor creates a contract ...
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As of 2018 Sept 21st. When is the scheduled Casper Proof of Stake expected to arrive?

Where can one find updates on Casper POS? I hear its been constantly delayed. When is it expected to arrive? And is there an alpha/beta state where one can test it out now?
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Who will run the network after proof of stake?

Currently miners act as 'servers' for the Ethereum network, by doing all the needed work for Dapps to run, calculating, saving data etc.. Am I correct? My question is this: who will run all of this ...
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When a bonded node loses a bet who gets the ETH?

In Casper Proof-of-Stake, a validator needs to be a bonded node: it puts up a security deposit that can be lost if the validator misbehaves. When a bonded node misbehaves, who receives the lost ETH?
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How will one stake Ether?

Once Ethereum makes the switch to proof of stake how will one choose to stake Ether? Will they have to use a special program or will Ether not in use be considered staked and be used to gain more ...
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What is the algorithm to select random validators in PoS? [duplicate]

As I know, Ethereum Casper PoS implementation randomly selects 250 validators from the validator poll for an epoch. What is the random algorithm for this selection?
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Overview of Ethereum Milestones?

In 2017 there was the Metropolis hardfork. In 2018 there will be Constantinople. Is Constantinople a full PoS fork or will it be hybrid like 1 block of 200 will be PoS mined? Will there be a Casper ...
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Will miners still make Ether after POS?

So, I am new to the entire crypto currency idea although, I am a software developer and I have been planning for years to create a CRM that is fully autonomous and exceptionally secure. Ether's code ...
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Has proof-of-stake been formally proved?

From my understanding Bitcoin solves the Byzantine's Generals Problem under the assumption that there's no attacker that control more than 50%+1 of the mining power and this has been studied and ...
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Three related hypothetical security flaws in Casper: does the protocol allow them?

Casper attempts to solve the problem of "catestrophic crashes", where validators with more than 1/3rd of the voting weight go offline and thereby stop any more blocks from being validated, by using an ...
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Proof of stake, mauve paper - glossary of terms

Just getting my head around some of the concepts in Vitalik Buterin's Mauve paper. There are a few terms for which I don't yet have a clear definitions. These include the terms below (shown with my ...
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What algorithm Ethereum use POS(proof of shake) or POW(proof of work)?

I am very much curious to know what algorithm Ethereum is using and what is the impact of this algorithm in the current blockchain .
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Why are coins at risk when honestly staking?

It has been repeatedly written that staking nodes should buy DDoS protection or be at risk of losing their coins. Can someone explain why an honest staker is at risk of losing his coins in case it ...
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If thief controls large percentage of total ETH supply, what effect will this have on viability of POS?

If a softfork and hardfork were not adopted by majority of miners, and the thief is able to control a large percentage of the total supply of ETH, how will this affect the ability for ethereum to use ...
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What should I prepare for the coming ETH 2.0 upgrade as a Dapps developer?

As announced, Ethereum is expected to be its upgraded version Eth2.0 probably from 2020. There will be several upgrades like PoW to PoS/Casper FFG eWasm integration sharding (Casper CBC) These ...
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Casper FFG slashed deposits distribution?

How is the slashed funds distributed upon failing to follow the requirements as a validator?
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Are there still uncles with proof-of-stake?

As I understand, with PoS the selected validator is determined within predictable time windows. Does this mean that uncles will be gone for PoS?
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Hashes per Ether, before and after PoS

What is the mean number of embedded hashes per Ether? If my understanding is correct, the Keccak-256 hash function is a fundemental unit of computational work on the Ethereum blockchain. Therefore ...
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Does staking on ETH 2.0 require a full node and how much space would that take?

I read that ETH 2.0 staking with 32 ETH requires users running a full node on their server. But doesn't a full node take up 500+ GB of space? What are the proposed system requirements?
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Once PoS and Casper is reached, what stops block times from dropping into the millisecond range?

After reading through Vlad's Casper Post, I am under the impression that Casper consensus will be reached when the validators all agree on a bit (more or less). If this is the case, why can the '...
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How does the network validate a block in PoS

In general PoS, the forgers stake their coins and then a validator chosen in a pseudorandom fashion gets the chance to validate a block. But how do the whole network validate it? In PoW, for example, ...
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What happens to lost coins in PoS?

Let's say a miner created an invalid block and the network catches the miner red handed. Then the miner loses all the coins staked on that block. What I do not understand is where do these coins go?
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What is delegated proof of stake and why is it not suitable for Ethereum?

Ethereum will switch to Proof Of Stake in some future hard fork called Serenity. For this putpose a new Proof Of Stake protocol called Casper is being developed.[1] However, there are quite a few ...
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Casper proposal mechanism

I do not understand how the proposal mechanism illutstrated here works. A proposal mechanism is a mechanism that proposes hashes, which the rest of the machinery with PREPARE and COMMIT messages ...
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Do economic bets by miners fail to ensure security if the Notional Value of a contract exceeds that of the largest such bets?

A Smart Contract could be written to track a notional value greater than that of the value of ethereum contained in the contract, or even that of the stake of the miners in Proof of Stake, or the ...
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Quorum failure - Failed to decode message from payload

We use in our project -JP Morgan Quorum (Ethereum based) bloackchain - with istanbul voting mode. We have 4 nodes (3 of them are validators - hard coded, nonchangable) And from time to time (...
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Will not a PoS implementation converge in a much less wealth equally distributed system?

With the current trends of prices in crypto and the long term vision supported by the community (HODL!), the implementation of Proof of Stake could eventually derive in big ETH stakeholders getting ...
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What's the difference between Nakamoto consensus vs Proof-of-Authority vs BFT

Documentations all around the internet are filled with these terms to categorise consensus protocols. What is the difference between them. For example: many call parity's tendermint as a BFT type ...
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Validators in POS

note: Simple, layman, language would be highly appreciated! Hello, So, what would a 'validator' (after switching from PoW to Pos on Ethereum) actually, do? Specifically? Would he be required to ...
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What is the category of the 2 consensus algorithms here presented?

From the Ethereum Wiki: In a private chain context, there are three consensus algorithms that make the most sense: Proof of authority - essentially, one client with one particular private key ...
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Can you implement Sharding in PoW? [closed]

Can you implement Sharding in a Blockchain with Proof of Work? And in a Blockchain with Proof of Stake? Thank you for clarification.
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What makes the blockchain immutable in Proof-of-Stake? [duplicate]

In Proof-of-Work, it's difficult to edit/delete data on the blockchain because of the millions of hashes performed before generating a block. It would be impossible for a single attacker to have 51% ...
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Are miners eliminated in Proof of Authority?

According to this blog post by Vitalik on April 1st 2017, Ethereum will move from Proof of Work to Proof of Authority in 2018. He states: We have decided that the problem is too hard, and secure ...
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Will there be mining pools with the Proof-of-Stake?

Ethereum will eventually move to Proof-of-Stake algorithm. I guess it is a very basic question, but how the mining pools are supposed to work in that case (if at all)?
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What will the ETH inflation rate be after PoS is released? [duplicate]

Has the Proof of Stake emission schedule been decided yet? What will be the rate of inflation? Is 2017 for the end of PoW still the best estimate?
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Fork in Proof-of-Stake?

Regarding the fact that in Proof-of-Stake, a stakeholder will be elected randomly as the next author of the next block in each epoch (or each round or slot), logically, in each round (or slot) there ...
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What's the difference between a Slot and a Block?

I'm running a private beacon chain with the Lighthouse client with some local validators: Mar 23 10:35:08.281 INFO Block from local validator block_slot: 13009, block_root: 0x2bab…25a6, ...