Questions tagged [proof-of-stake]

proof-of-stake is a method by which a blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus by asking users to prove ownership of a certain amount of an asset.

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126
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5answers
42k views

Why does Ethereum plan to move to Proof of Stake?

The initial version of Ethereum (Frontier) uses a Proof of Work based consensus algorithm, but I see that there are plans to implement a Proof of Stake based consensus algorithm called "Casper" in a ...
79
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6answers
159k views

What is the total supply of Ether?

In Bitcoin, the total supply is capped at 21 million BTC. Is the total supply of Ether capped? How much will be mined before the Proof of Stake (POS) transition, and how will POS affect the issuance ...
66
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5answers
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What's the difference between proof of stake and proof of work?

The Ethereum frontier network currently uses a proof of work (PoW) consensus algorithm, while a future version of the network plans to utilise a proof of stake (PoS) algorithm instead. What's the ...
38
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3answers
15k views

How does the Casper proof of stake algorithm work?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. What are the details of that algorithm, and how does it compare to previous Proof of Stake consensus ...
33
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3answers
37k views

How do miners profit post-PoS, if at all, how will new miners get their start, and who will execute the EVM byte code (and why)?

I've been following the release of Casper/PoS closely, and I'm curious about a few details. How will miners make money (even if GPUs are less valuable)? Are spare compute resources (say RAM, CPU) ...
25
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2answers
19k views

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem?

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem in Proof-of-Stake consensus networks? While I understand what the nothing at stake problem means, I do not really understand the security implications. ...
24
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3answers
9k views

What is a Shard?

Proof of Stake brings new concepts to the Blockchain ecosystem. In the dictionary "Shard" is defined as "A broken piece or fragment, as of pottery or glass".
17
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2answers
3k views

What is casper? [duplicate]

I see that Vitalik and Vlad are working on Casper. As far as I understand, casper is the new POS mining algorithm. Why is it better than bitcoin's POW? I understand it's environmentally friendly, ...
17
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1answer
1k views

How does Casper solve the “Nothing at Stake” issue?

One of the criticisms of proof of stake is that stakers can vote for multiple blockchain forks with only a trivial cost. I believe NXT solves this by not giving out a mining reward, so that the ...
16
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1answer
4k views

Can Proof of Stake (PoS) improve the number of Transactions per Second?

Currently Ethereum is using Proof of Work (PoW). From my understanding there is a limit of time between blocks for two reasons: Part of that time between blocks represents the time to solve the PoW ...
16
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1answer
3k views

What is the difference between Casper and Tendermint

Both are consensus protocols that fall under the category proof of stake. However - they differ in some design goals. Casper favors availability over consistency in comparison to Tendermint. What does ...
13
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1answer
560 views

Are light nodes possible in Casper?

My understanding of light nodes is they need PoW in the block headers. That PoW proves that $x amount of energy has gone into securing that chain. With PoS, the proof that $y is securing the chain ...
12
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2answers
1k views

In Casper PoS, what is a finalised block?

Vitalik talks about block finalisation here, and Vlad also talks about it here. What is a finalised block? How long does it take to finalise a block? What are the security guarantees of a finalised ...
12
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3answers
9k views

Will a higher stake make more money in PoS?

Since I'm very new to this I'm just going to assume I'm getting it wrong. But here it goes anyway... The higher my stake, the more money I make. This is my raw understanding of how proof of stake ...
12
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1answer
2k views

What if difficulty bomb makes mining impossible before POS release?

As mining difficulty raises and POS is still not ready, I was just wondering if POS release can still be on time compared to the difficulty bomb giving too high difficulty. In simpler words, is there ...
11
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3answers
713 views

How are we going to mitigate DDoS Attacks in Proof of Stake?

I would like to know if I am connected to the network as a validator, how I my node will be protected of DDoS attacks.
11
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3answers
1k views

What are the major risks of Ethereum moving to Proof of Stake?

There has been discussion about the motivations and benefits of moving to Proof of Stake. For a risk-benefit analysis of moving to Proof of Stake, what are the major risks?
10
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4answers
3k views

What are the scalability benefits of PoS vs PoW?

This accepted answer claims that one advantage of PoS vs PoW is that some scalability problems can be addressed more easily with PoS What are those scalability problems? What are the scalability ...
10
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2answers
4k views

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake?

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake? And how will this vector be mitigated with the Casper Proof-of-Stake implementation?
9
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1answer
1k views

What is “Weak Subjectivity”?

Vitalik explains "Weak Subjectivity" in this blog here, but it's too difficult to beginners. Can anybody please explain this a bit more easily?
8
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1answer
2k views

What is Proof of Stake (PoS)? [duplicate]

What is the Proof of Stake and how this concept is (or will be) related with Ethereum?
8
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2answers
5k views

What is the current state of Casper?

I've been reading a bit about Casper, but I couldn't find anything recent nor any technical details about it. I know the protocol is not finished but is there any information about it? I mean more ...
8
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3answers
10k views

When will Ethereum switch to Proof of Stake so miners can plan to prepare themselves?

There are talks that the switch to PoS could happen this summer but is it too early, or the date is real so should miners already acknowledge that soon enough they will not be contributing as much?
8
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1answer
6k views

When will Ethereum switch to Proof of Stake? [closed]

What is the latest estimation of when will the switch to PoS happen? Last time the question was asked about 6 months ago, the answer was mid-2016, which is just around the corner. https://...
8
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2answers
614 views

How does betting on a block work in Casper?

Betting on a block is betting money that effectively says something like: "I believe that this block has at least a 60% chance of being true." Q1. Once a bet is made, is it possible to change the ...
8
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1answer
384 views

Does more ether = more voting power in Casper?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. However, as nodes are betting on which block will be produced next, does that mean the more ether you ...
8
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1answer
431 views

How hard is it for Ethereum clients to get on the new fork in case of an attack?

Vitalik Buterin writes: Assuming ~20% participation in PoS and current prices, you could stall or break the network at a cost of ~$7 million. However, unlike PoW, recovery is simpler: Ethereum just ...
7
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2answers
4k views

What is GHOST and what is its relationship to Frontier and Casper?

As high-level as possible without losing important meaning, what's the intuition behind GHOST? How is it currently implemented in Frontier? What will be different with GHOST in Casper?
7
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4answers
590 views

What are the open issues with the Casper proof of stake algorithm?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future release named Serenity. There's a comment that Casper's "basic mechanisms are fairly firmed up now". What are the details of ...
7
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2answers
2k views

Why did Ethereum not start with Proof of Stake?

I had been reading up on Proof of Stake and the advantages and disadvantages. As if I am correctly informed, it is planned to change from PoW to PoS in the near future, using Casper. I had also been ...
7
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1answer
1k views

How much computing power is required to verify transactions on Proof-of-Stake?

What is the theoretical computing power needed in order to verify transactions on the upcoming Proof-of-Stake switch. For instance, will this be something that we can do on a raspberry pi?
7
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1answer
293 views

Can you (as a node) manually choose what block to bet on in Casper?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. However, as nodes are betting on which block will be produced next, does that mean (as a node) you can ...
7
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1answer
3k views

Will a GPU help with Proof-of-Stake?

Will a GPU be required to do proof of stake as a full node? Will it help me be more profitable? Will a highly available network connection be worth more than having a beefy GPU? What if I don't stay ...
7
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1answer
307 views

In Casper, how can a block be finalized if previous blocks are unconfirmed?

As explained in an Ethereum blog post, one consequence of consensus-by-bet is that: a block can remain unconfirmed even when blocks after that block are completely finalized. The given example ...
7
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1answer
175 views

Will Eth 2.0 be implemented in geth (go-ethereum) or will it run on a new client?

Geth is the official implementation of Ethereum based on the coding language Go. Currently, there are 8 teams that are building Eth 2.0 https://www.coindesk.com/next-gen-buidlers-the-8-teams-working-...
7
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2answers
929 views

Proof of Stake - Is it risky to stake?

What if a client malfunctions due to the corruption of data isn't it risky to stake? With PoW this is no issue but with PoS this seems to be a real issue with the slasher protocol. I would be worried ...
6
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2answers
761 views

With POS, will Ether stay be a necessary fuel to run the network?

I'm curious to understand, how necessary will Ether be after the Ethereum network moves to Proof of Stake? I guess stake holders will be rewarded with Ether for voting on the correct next block. ...
6
votes
2answers
226 views

Is supplying new ETH prohibitive with Casper or an economic decision?

It has been said that the creation of new ETH will be discontinued with Caspar and PoS. Is there a fundamental reason why this is necessary, rooted in the protocol or is this a deliberate decision by ...
6
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2answers
608 views

How many full time developers are working on Proof of Stake research?

How many full time Ethereum developers (or full time equivalents) are currently working on PoS research?
6
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2answers
768 views

How does the 'secret chain' catch up with the real chain in the long range attack?

I'm trying to dig deep into Casper and one of the things that keep coming up is the long-range attack in PoS. I understand the attack at a high level - basically you would go back some large amount of ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Ethereum POS economics question about gravitating all ether supply to stake

Please, dispel my doubts about POS, miners rewards and too strong incentives to participate in it that could lead to almost total supply of ether locked in stake. So, we have: Et - total Ether ...
6
votes
1answer
828 views

How are block proposals made in Casper?

A blog post says this about block proposals in Casper: A NXT-style random number generator is used to determine who can generate a block at each height; essentially, this involves taking missing ...
6
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1answer
2k views

What will be the transaction fee when Ethereum shifts to PoS?

Ethereum plans to shift from PoW to PoS and there'll be no mining involved anymore. The incentive for peers to participate in the network and confirm the transactions will be the transaction fee. How ...
6
votes
2answers
884 views

Is it possible to change Proof-of-Work into Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm of an on-going Ethereum private chain?

I have a on-going small private chain could be seen here. I have only few nodes, hence difficulty is pretty low and average block time is high (around a minute). So it can easily attacked with someone ...
6
votes
1answer
668 views

Block header structure change under Proof of Stake?

The yellow paper describes the below block header structure: This includes difficulty, beneficiary, mixHash and nonce values. Presumably these will be redundant under Proof-of-Stake. How will the ...
5
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3answers
989 views

What is consensus-by-bet?

So I'm reading up on Casper, and I see Consensus By Bet. How does it protect the network in a POS system?
5
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1answer
2k views

What logic controls Proof of Stake voting?

NOTICE: This question is now outdated; it refers to one of the older plans for the Casper Proof of Stake validation concept (including validators voting on multiple heights at once). The updated (...
5
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1answer
5k views

Will staking Ether work with any amount?

Once Ethereum moves to PoS, will someone 'staking' 100 - 200 ETH have any incentive to do so? Or will it only be worth while to those holding thousands or tens of thousands of coins? Once all ETH has ...
5
votes
1answer
104 views

Plasma.io: What if someone is offline during a mass withdrawal?

I'm reading the Plasma paper published a couple months ago, and on page 27, they talk about "Adversarial Mass Withdrawals" in the event of block withholding. My question is, what if someone is ...
5
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1answer
187 views

Deliberate Slashing: Don't slashing and leaking incentivize DDOS attacks on smaller nodes? Won't this centralize POS more than POW, even?

In Ethereum's proposed proof-of-stake algorithm (POS): A traditional node operator can't host a node themselves (e.g. on a home network), someone could just DDOS their node to bring them offline. ...