Questions tagged [proof-of-stake]

proof-of-stake is a method by which a blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus by asking users to prove ownership of a certain amount of an asset.

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What happens to stakers' rewards when initial supply of coins are ended?

I was just reading about staking. Came to know that stakers stake their coins in the blockchain, validate the blocks and earn rewards. These rewards are from the initial supply of coins that is being ...
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Where does the yield for staked eth before the merge come from?

After the merge it is clear where the yield comes from, but right now I do not understand where the approx. 4.4% come from? Is the supply of eth simply inflated by the beacon chain in order to pay out ...
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Ethereum 2.0: supermajority, stake distribution among validators

I am studying how the Ethereum 2.0 version works. I have read the official documentation and in particular this. According to the information I found here, the maximum number of validators allowed is ...
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In proof-of-stake, What is the "hash value" parameter in randomized-block-selection

So I'm researching the proof of stake consensus protocol, and one fundamental aspect in proof of stake for electing forger nodes is randomized block selection. From my research, randomized block ...
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Why is it called a 51% attack if you need 2/3 of total stake in Proof of Stake?

Validation schemes require 2/3 of total stake to agree on the next block in proof of stake, so, if I'm a bad actor, outpacing honest validators requires 2/3 of total stake. Yet, attacks from malicious ...
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Checking if merge has happened in smart contract

Is it possible to check whether or not the merge has happened using a smart contract? Preferably completely on-chain, but some trustworthy decentralized oracle that tells me could work too.
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Loans with proof of stake?

In the punitive aspects of any PoS protocol, I see the key ideas as i) miners (now called 'validators') are known, so we can identify problems on the ledger with particular validators, and ii) there ...
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In PoS, can a validator only vote on blocks which descend from its "deposit block"?

I'm trying to get a hold of the Casper FFG paper and I suddenly realized I have a very basic question about validators in PoS. At any given time, the entire network has an active validator set. It is ...
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Questions about the Executable Beacon Chain Proposal

I am reading the executable beacon chain proposal here, and I have a couple of questions and I would appreciate if someone more versed in the Ethereum technology stack can help answer. I reproduce the ...
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What does the format of of the filename of keystore generated by the eth2.0-deposit-cli mean?

When I eth2.0 deposit client, it generates the keystore file with a filename in a peculiar format. For example: keystore-m_12381_3600_1_0_0-1646556486.json What exactly does this file name format ...
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invest in ETH using the POS - what am i missing?

I'm wondering if i can invest in ETH using the POS system. I have the following idea: Get a computer (regular one no special GPU) to be up 24\7 Connect to a staking pool like RocketPool or similar ...
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Block chain beginner questions

I am new to this Block Chain environment and this is not an excuse for asking this basic doubt its just that I am very curious about this question and I am not able to find any answer to this question....
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Does Ethereum proof of stake still use hashing?

I am trying to understand the Ethereum proof of stake protocol, I got a general idea however, still have some confusion. What exactly means proposing a block. Does the winner validator still require ...
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What are the Httpmodules

can anyone explain to me what are the Httpmodules ? because i am working on the BSC and i found the parlia module and trying to understand how it is working and how to use it to work with the PoS. if ...
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How does a shard slot proposer have anything to propose?

Proposers of a shard slot are pseudorandomly chosen like on beacon chain. Every validator does not however have the mempool or the state of every shard there is. So, when assigned to propose a block ...
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Why are there between 64 and 128 attestations every slot if there's only 64 committees?

Every slot have between 64 to 128 attenstations but all only have 64 committees. Some of the attestations on slots are done by 128+ validators of one committees while another attestation could be done ...
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Why will on average 64 signing privileges be assigned each block in Slasher algorithm?

In this post about Slasher algorithm: https://blog.ethereum.org/2014/01/15/slasher-a-punitive-proof-of-stake-algorithm, it says: At block K+1000, an address A with balance B gains a “signing ...
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How does Proof Of Stake deal with transactions that are transfering more money than had been staked

I will try to clarify my question. As far as I understood, the proof of stake relies on the fact that it would make no sense to try to steal/forge transactions because you would lose your staked money....
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How does POS protocol handle the case where Staking node is offline

How does POS protocol handle the case where Staking node is offline and was chosen by consensus algorithm as the next block creator. Will the task be delegated to some other node? Let's say the node ...
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How can Ethereum's supply shrink 2% in the future if most holders just hold onto them?

It is commonly said that Ethereum supply will shrink about 2% per year going towards ETH 2.0. However, if most people holding it only stake them, and get additional ETH as reward, and don't spend gas ...
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How much Ethereum would we get per year when we go into purely Proof of Stake?

Let's say, if a person is holding 32 Ethereum and stake them all, in a year, how many ETH will it become altogether?
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Plausible Liveness Problem on Casper FFG

Recently, I read about "Casper The Friendly Finality Gadget", when facing with Theorem 2 (Plausible Liveness), I don't understand its corresponding proof. Basically, I have two questions: ...
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How can there be a fork if only one validator is allowed to propose a block per slot?

As I understand it, one and only one validator get selected to propose the next block on the beacon chain. This means that the other validator attesting can only attest to one block right? (since ...
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What happens when a validator earns more than their staked 32 ETH?

What happens when a validator earns back more than their staked 32 ETH? The "nothing at stake" situation kicks in then...no? And it becomes cheaper for a validator to misbehave. Or will they ...
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Will Beacon node end up supporting smart contracts?

I am aware that part of the PoS migration is the Phase 2, which will introduce the Smart Contract Execution. What is not clear though is if beacon nodes would be expanded to support smart contract ...
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How will transactions be assigned to a shards in Ethereum PoS?

I understand that the plan is to have shards with Ethereum PoS. I am trying to have a mental picture of how that will work. Basically when a wallet signs a transaction, what determines which shard of ...
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Will there be two votes and two kinds of attestation in Ethereum 2.0?

I am reading this The Beacon Chain Ethereum 2.0 explainer you need to read first and I came across the following: Most of the time, validators are attesters that vote on beacon blocks and shard ...
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What is the rationale behind the content of a beacon chain's block?

In this question where I asked What exactly is the content of blocks on the beacon chain? I got pointed to the data structure representing the content of the beacon chain, which is: class ...
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What does attest to the head of the beacon chain mean

I am reading an overview of the beacon chain here and I came across this section I do not understand: Validators are split into “beacon committees” at each epoch (defined 1 epoch in advance to allow ...
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What is a crosslink in Ethereum PoS

I understand that Ethereum PoS will have validators that proposes blocks (instead of miners that mines blocks). IN all the description I am reading I am also coming across something called crosslink, ...
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What exactly is the content of blocks on the beacon chain?

I am trying to wrap my head around how the POS ethereum will work and have so many questions. First one is basically about the beacon chain. What exactly would the blocks in the beacon chain contain? ...
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What if the unstaking time is shortened to several minutes?

I am wondering What if the unstaking time is shortened to several minutes? not several days or weeks? Is there any problem with it?
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How does a stakeholder verify transactions?

Maybe I'm a bit tunnel-visioned at this point, but I am trying to get a technical grasp of how a Proof of Stake algorithm works. I understand that a validators are chosen semi-randomly based on the ...
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How can a smart contract deployed on Mainnet know if it is running on PoW or (in the future) PoS?

I'd like my smart contract to know if it's running on PoW or (in the future) PoS in Mainnet. Does checking for block.difficulty solve the problem? If so, what will be the value of block.difficulty ...
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How to build an Ethereum private chain using POS consensus

I want to use POS consensus to build my own private chain, who can tell me how to do it?
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Code for staking Ethereum

Ethereum enabled staking for anyone with a minimum of 32 ETH. Where can I see the code of their staking protocol? Is it a .sol file? Is it a contract address whose code is viewable on Etherscan? ...
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More details on proof of stake voting

I'm implementing a cryptocurrency to learn, I've already gotten a proof of work based chain running and functional and am now trying to move it over to proof of stake. I can only seem to find very ...
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Proof of Stake Resources for research

I need resources/links/articles for proof of stake consensus algorithm for research analysis. If anyone has any resources, please do share.
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What is the incentive for people running execution clients in eth2

If I understand correctly, in the coming proof of stake version of Ethereum, there would be the beacon chain, with blocks on it created by validators. These validators will get compensated for doing ...
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How are blocks actually added to the blockchain in Eth2

I think I understand the general idea of how blocks get mined in proof of work based Ethereum. Basically validators puts transactions in a block, then they race to find the hash with a particular ...
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Comparative effectiveness of pseudorandom functions, and other factors

Which of these two is more effective for generating a pseudorandom number? function random() internal view returns (uint) { return uint(blockhash(block.number - 1)); } function random() internal ...
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Michael Saylor explains POW(proof of work) is superior to POS(proof of stake). Can we PHW(prove him wrong)? [duplicate]

In this video Saylor explains why he thinks POW is superior to POS. He says a lot of things but the summary of his thinking is that since POS doesn't require as much energy, that makes it much less ...
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How to locally deploy Eth 2.0 and try out its APIs?

How to locally deploy Eth 2.0 and try out its APIs? What to download/build/run to get the latest collection of Etherium 2.0 features (PoS, Layer 2 scaling)
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Questions about PoS and PoET consensus protocols

Hi I have a few questions about how exactly PoS and PoET consensus protocols work. Would really appreciate if you could ELI5 In PoS how does the selection of the validator actually work? Is there a ...
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Is the current Casper proof-of-stake (PoS) protocol still resistant to cartel censorship and favouring availability over consistency?

In The History of Casper — Chapter 5, Vlad Zamfir describes Casper: The friendly ghost (CFG) in the following way: "It was the shape of a protocol that had these properties: One validator would ...
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Proof of History for Ethereum 2.0

After reading about the Solana-chain, I became convinced that "Proof of History" is a great idea for syncing a decentralized clock and improving scalability. Be aware that Solana is still a ...
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Initialize a blockchain based on PoS

How a blockchain based on PoS could be initialized if nobody has the coins to become a Validator?
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Staking when you have 0 ETH

I was wondering how could you become a validator (and get ETH reward) if it is required to have 32 ETH? Is it supposed that you bought 32ETH already? Or will there be another way to get ETH? Couldn't ...
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What controls the inter-block interval in proof-of-stake?

In proof-of-work, the interval between 2 blocks is controlled by the mining difficulty: in Bitcoin, at all times, it must take roughly 10 minutes to mine a block, so every two weeks we adjust the ...
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Block Reward in Proof of Stake Concept

I am doing some research on the PoS concept and it seems like validators in a PoS network are getting rewarded by receiving the tx fees of the blocks they are validating. However, most resources state ...
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