Questions tagged [proof-of-stake]

proof-of-stake is a method by which a blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus by asking users to prove ownership of a certain amount of an asset.

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Is it Possible To Avoid Yield Farms That Use Leverage?

Are there any Yield Farms (YFs) that do not use leverage or is leverage worked into virtually every YF strategy? I'm concerned with the use of borrowing behind the scenes of Yield Farms (YFs) in order ...
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How Do Liquidity Pool Economics Work?

I'm looking at liquidity pools (LPs), and the economics don't make sense given the APYs. How is this possible, or are exchanges simply taking a loss to establish market dominance? Please tell me if/...
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Even if I own 51% of stake (or have 51% computational power) and try to cheat, can't others still see that my block is invalid?

I'm thinking about how proof of stake works exactly. As I understand, here is how it is secure: I cannot forge a tx where random A pays me X amount because I would need the private keys of A. ...
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How to build local ETH2.0 test net?

I'd like to build ETH2.0 blockchain on my computer. And I want to know how to become a validator using that. I read many documents but I can't get this way. (I think that Geth is for ETH1.0. Is this ...
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How to stake ETH for Ethereum 2.0?

How can I stake ETH in Ethereum 2.0 network to earn staking rewards? How much ETH to I need? How much I can earn? How long do I need to wait to get my reward?
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What unit of time is used to calculate downtime penalties for Validators?

Is the penalty a function of the number of blocks you missed or is it calculated in some time unit like seconds?
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Ethereum2.0 Shard chains will be PoW or PoS

I'm sorry if this is a basic question. But will the new shard chains for Ethereum2.0 be PoW or PoS? I know the plan is for Eth1 mainnet to "dock" onto the beacon chain eventually and be its ...
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Casper Engine for Private Chains

Is there a version of the Casper Proof of Stake engine either CBC or FFG that is available for testing on a private network? If so is there a guide on how I would utilize it?
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What is the penalty of having ETH2 validator offline

i want to do participate in proof of stake. i have just read https://ethereum.org/en/eth2/staking/ . under "Risks" the site says Although you can earn rewards for doing work that benefits ...
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Proof of Stake leader-election [duplicate]

So I understand Proof-of-work high level, where nodes work to solve a "puzzle". And once they've created a valid block they then broadcast it to the network. So that node receives the reward ...
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How validator re-join is prevented?

According to this article, once a validator performs a voluntary exit, he can not rejoin: If you’ve performed a voluntary exit, or been slashed, you won’t be able to rejoin. This means if you want to ...
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After 48 hours, my validator request is still “Pending” (Deposited)

I'm playing around with Ethereum 2.0 Proof of stake for my upcoming guide Come fare staking con Ethereum 2.0 (italian only, sorry). I setup Go Ethereum and Nimbus, generated the required keys via eth2....
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On Ethereum 2.0 PoS, how/when are new coins minted?

In Ethereum "1.0", new coins are minted as reward for the miners. I understand from multiple sources (eg: academy.binance.com) that this won't be the case with Ethereum 2.0: When a node ...
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Why does PoS use a target Hash with validation?

As I understand, there is 2 methods on choosing the next node for block validation in PoS namely: 1. coin age and 2. randomized node selection based on stake value and hash value. In PoW the protocol ...
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how does casper help with finality?

My question is very simple... I've watched some videos and read articles, but couldn't figure this. It's said that on the internet If the block has been finalized, it can't be reverted/changed in ...
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How to select the next author of block in Proof-of-Stake? [duplicate]

There is a common (but not precise) opinion that the block's author selection is random in Proof-of-Stake. I therefore posted a question here: Proof-of-Stake: How to prevent someone from being always ...
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Fork in Proof-of-Stake?

Regarding the fact that in Proof-of-Stake, a stakeholder will be elected randomly as the next author of the next block in each epoch (or each round or slot), logically, in each round (or slot) there ...
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Proof-of-Stake: How to prevent someone from being always selected as an author of block? [duplicate]

In proof-of-stake, by definition, each stakeholder deposits and locks some tokens (stakes) for more chances to be selected as an author of block in a random-based election procedure. Till here, it's ...
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What is the criteria to resync chain using proof of stake?

In PoW, nodes always resync their own chain to the longest chain in the network in order to respect the work the miners have done. In PoS, as I understand in its simplest form, the miner with the ...
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How does proof of stake prevent past blocks from being changed?

I have a question about Proof of Stake. Are there any protections against a user just creating an entirely new chain, since there is no computational penalty for creating a really long chain, couldn't ...
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How are block proposers selected in Ethereum 2.0?

i'm doing some research about Ethereum 2.0 for university. I think i understand the way it works, but i have a perplexity about the proposer selection in a slot, especially after reading the codes ...
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Is Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding Ethereum) only PoS based? Or a combination of PoW + PoS?

Does Ethereum 2.0 (Sharded Ethereum) only use PoS (Proof-of-stake) for consensus mechanism ? Or Does it use a combination of PoW + PoS ?
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Where is the stake amount stored in Proof-of-Stake?

So in the PoS consensus algorithm, the nodes can lock their coins and the node with the highest coins has the highest probability of getting the chance for validating coins. I have two questions: 1) ...
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Is there a penalty for having a ETH 2.0 Staking node go down?

For some proof of stake blockchain systems, there is a penalty if the node goes down during staking. Will there be some sort of penalty if an ETH 2.0 staking node went down? And if there isn't how ...
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What's the difference between a Slot and a Block?

I'm running a private beacon chain with the Lighthouse client with some local validators: Mar 23 10:35:08.281 INFO Block from local validator block_slot: 13009, block_root: 0x2bab…25a6, ...
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How to adjust “time slots” in Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding + PoS)?

In Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding and PoS), blocks are produced at a regular schedule, say once every t seconds. What does this time slot depend on? The number of validators in the network who deposited ...
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Could smart contract use a fork block?

If generated two forked block A and B. Can the smart contract in block A access to transaction in block B? I know that PoS is consensus algorithm working by check all stake in block. The verifier ...
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How to transition to PoS?

I'm trying to find the details of the coming PoW to PoS transition, but all I could find were generic explanations why it was so good. Can somebody point me to a resource or just explain in a few ...
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Is proof of stake vulnerable?

If there is a large drop in the US dollar value of ETH over a substantial period, one can assume that people will be deterred from staking ETH because they could lose money (USD) on the stake. Is ...
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Do ERC20-type tokens make a 51% attack more profitable?

A successful 51% attack (PoW or PoS) would allow the attacker to double spend any token, not just ether, so the greatest possible payoff is equal to the value of all ERC20-type tokens plus all ether. ...
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Hidding IP address behind sentry nodes

I would like to know how to set up an Ethereum node behind sentries (proxy nodes). I know there are several ways to approach this issue as mentioned here. https://medium.com/@kidinamoto/tech-choices-...
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What is the proposed ETH 2.0 staking reward and minimum / maximum stake one can put on a node?

There are 80+ million ethereum. A staking node requires only 32 eth to stake. If even just 25% of the 80 million started to stake, that would create 625,000 staking nodes. If the reward is 1 eth per ...
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Does staking on ETH 2.0 require a full node and how much space would that take?

I read that ETH 2.0 staking with 32 ETH requires users running a full node on their server. But doesn't a full node take up 500+ GB of space? What are the proposed system requirements?
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What Would Be The Reward For Smart Contract Miners In Ethereum POS?

I have seen this: What’s the block reward for smart contract miners? Which addresses it for the POW period of Ethereum, but what about POS? They just earn a sort of "interest" for their stake as ...
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Does Casper FFG in phase 0 take its checkpoints from the current ETH 1.0 POW chain?

Does Casper FFG in phase 0 take its checkpoints from the current ETH 1.0 POW chain? I'm reading some conflicting material on this. The Casper FFG paper describes taking a checkpoint at every 50 POW ...
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Nothing-At-Stacke: What is EV and why can I not vote on both branches with full stake?

Can somebody tell me what EV means and what the graphs represent? Does p=0.9 means that I look 0.9 of my stake for the one branch and 0.1 for the other? Where does this locking happens? Why can't I ...
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What should I prepare for the coming ETH 2.0 upgrade as a Dapps developer?

As announced, Ethereum is expected to be its upgraded version Eth2.0 probably from 2020. There will be several upgrades like PoW to PoS/Casper FFG eWasm integration sharding (Casper CBC) These ...
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After POS is implemented, what stops mining pools from being formed?

There won't be "mining pools" but stake pools but what if someone creates a system where participants stake everthing in one place in order to make the mkst money? Is this allowed and is this a ...
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Is Casper FFG still going to be implemented?

What is the status of Casper FFG within the ETH 2.0 roadmap. Is the plan still that it will be implemented with Phase 0 or Phase 1? Or is the plan to adopt Casper CBC instead, and forgo implementing ...
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Network propagation delay and forks in Proof of Stake?

I am learning the fundamental of Proof of Stake (PoS), i came accross a question which i could not find answer to. Assume we have three validators (aka miners in PoW), V1, V2 and V3. Each of the ...
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How to make atomic swap between Ethereum and POS chain?

There's simple way to make atomic swap for smart-contact chain and any POW chain. For example for Ether <> BTC: Alice sends some Ether to the swap smart-contact which locks this money. While ...
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How is the block interval constrained in Ethereum 2.0

Sorry if i get any of the terminology wrong here, i'm no expert when it comes to PoS protocols. How does Ethereum 2.0 control for blocktime, typically we have the idea of a function that can be ...
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How are transactions ordered in POS?

With POW, the miners who finds the block chooses the order of transactions in that block. How will this work with POS?
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How does the network validate a block in PoS

In general PoS, the forgers stake their coins and then a validator chosen in a pseudorandom fashion gets the chance to validate a block. But how do the whole network validate it? In PoW, for example, ...
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1answer
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Where do penalties for being offline go? (for validators)

Where do penalties for being offline go? (for validators) In POS when validator is being offline he loses part of its stake (depends on correlation with other validators being offline aka partial ...
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What is the algorithm to select random validators in PoS? [duplicate]

As I know, Ethereum Casper PoS implementation randomly selects 250 validators from the validator poll for an epoch. What is the random algorithm for this selection?
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What is the point of switching to ProgPOW for ethereum, when POS is coming in the coming year(s)?

With the recent discussion of the new ProgPOW mining switch. What is the point of it when POS is coming in the coming year(s)? I understand it disables the ASIC miners, while benefiting the GPU miners....
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Deliberate Slashing: Don't slashing and leaking incentivize DDOS attacks on smaller nodes? Won't this centralize POS more than POW, even?

In Ethereum's proposed proof-of-stake algorithm (POS): A traditional node operator can't host a node themselves (e.g. on a home network), someone could just DDOS their node to bring them offline. ...
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Will Eth 2.0 be implemented in geth (go-ethereum) or will it run on a new client?

Geth is the official implementation of Ethereum based on the coding language Go. Currently, there are 8 teams that are building Eth 2.0 https://www.coindesk.com/next-gen-buidlers-the-8-teams-working-...
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In proof of stake, is there a difference between being offline and deciding to leave entirely?

I'm struggling to understand the proof of stake concept. As I understand it, in order to participate in validation and its rewards, you must ante up some ether (I was told a minimum of 32). You are ...

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