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Questions tagged [proof-of-stake]

proof-of-stake is a method by which a blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus by asking users to prove ownership of a certain amount of an asset.

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Etherscan.io Verification Addresses

It's taking me a long time to verify addresses on Etherscan.io Can someone give me a solution for verifying contract addresses?
Brenda Lee Smith's user avatar
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7 views

How to write a custom bridge (for testnets)

I have two private testnets running on a network - one is Ethereum using PoW consensus and the other is running Ethereum with PoS consensus i want to create a bridge between them - say i want to move ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
18 views

How aggregated results are verified and updated

Assuming that there's 64 commitees in per slot and in each commitee of each slot, there's 16 aggregators, this results in the 1024 aggregator messages shared per slot. The reason for this is that if ...
Neo's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Eth 2.0 couple of confusions

I hit the dead end with some confusions related to eth2.0 and would appreciate your help. Tried many things but still couldn't understand. I know this is the place to ask a single question, but I have ...
Neo's user avatar
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"Waiting for deposit to be observed by beacon node pubKey=0x8b189a7f4669 status=UNKNOWN_STATUS" in Prysm Private Net

I followed "https://www.reddit.com/r/ethstaker/comments/jrkbe2/my_checklist_to_create_and_verify_accounts_and/" to run the validator in my private devnet using staking-deposit-cli and ethdo. ...
Bhavika's user avatar
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How does the RANDAO mechanism prevent DoS attacks in the beacon chain?

I was reading through an explainer on the Beacon Chain at ethos.dev, which mentioned that block proposers are selected via the RANDAO mechanism. This raised a question about the network's resilience ...
artxur's user avatar
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0 answers
10 views

Is it possible to implement the expiration mechanism into ethereum, or proof of stake for bitgesell coin?

I am intrigued by the ideas of Silvio Gesell and found that there is a Bitgesell coin, which seems to be a bitcoin fork with proof of work. Basically I would like to know if there are other people out ...
MoritzMoreira's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
24 views

How does an Ethereum PoS node software resolve social consensus?

As a new user, when I join the Ethereum network and want to know what the consensus chain is, I have to rely on social consensus, right — like for example I get two completely different states and ...
Ini's user avatar
  • 464
1 vote
1 answer
25 views

How prevent of attack in Ethereum

I hope you are well. The topic of my thesis is to increase security in blockchain-based IoMT (Internet of Medical Things). I aim to present new ideas to reduce attacks in the blockchain, considering ...
Samaneh's user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
1 answer
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Are block.timestamp and block.number still problematic under Proof of Stake?

As stated in the SWC116 (https://swcregistry.io/docs/SWC-116/) using block.timestamp and block.number in Smart Contracts under Proof of Work was problematic. Block.timestamp could be influenced by ...
Yleisnero's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
140 views

How are Ethereum 2 block hashes computed?

After the merge, the block hash computation has a different formula. Before that, the following data were used to compute the hash via feeding the list of hex values to an RLP encoder and hashing the ...
Kianoush Arshi's user avatar
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Why is Proof of Work considered to have no Economic Finality

In this article I read that Proof of Work has no Economic Finality. As I understand concept of economic finality is when for given block B, the consensus algorithm guarantees that if B is finalized, ...
Rezga's user avatar
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How "hybrid pow/pos" worked on Ethereum prior to the merge?

So I read this article, which explains how Proof of Stake works in ethereum, I think I understand how blocks are proposed, and how are they attested and then finalized to be part of the main chain. I ...
Rezga's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
288 views

How to run a PoS private network with geth & lighthouse?

So far for testing contracts, transactions and other dApp experiments I had worked with pre-established testnets (Rinkeby, Goerli etc) now i am tasked with deploying a private PoS network based on ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
26 views

Who is going to detect whether validators conduct misbehaviors?

If validators act dishonestly, who is going to find that out?
your_chinesemom's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
14 views

Does each validator have equal voting right in a committee?

I am very new to Ethereum. I am wondering once validators are selected for a committee, does every validator have equal voting right? Or their voting rights are weighted by their deposit balances? ...
your_chinesemom's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
324 views

How to find the fee recipient address of a validator?

Given a validator public key, is it possible to find the fee recipient address associated with it? (I'm talking about execution layer rewards such as MEV, not consensus layer rewards)
kolistivra's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
365 views

Does staking more than 32 ETH increase my chance of becoming a validator?

When people say "The more you stake, the more likely you will be selected as a validator," what do they mean exactly? My understanding is that I am only supposed to deposit 32 ETH (but ...
your_chinesemom's user avatar
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INFO powchain: Currently waiting for chainstart Additional validators needed=16384 Generating genesis state in=446340h0m0s

Issue currently waiting for chain start, generating genesis state Background I am using geth and prysm for creating this devnet from poa-to-pos geth branch:23ac8df15302bbde098cab6d711abdd24843d66a ...
kadeland's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
23 views

Is there any way to read block attestation from inside a solidity smart contract?

Are there any precompiles, or any other native ways to get block attestation data from ETH2 POS inside a solidity contract?
Bruce's user avatar
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What is 'value' in this Uniswap transaction log on Etherscan?

Hi, I'm finding it difficult to understand what Value is(=0.16 ETH in this example). Is it the miner tip to put the transaction first wrt to everyone else? Or is it the value in ETH of the token ...
Ricouello's user avatar
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40 views

How do forks (competing chains) arise in Proof-of-Stake?

I'm new to blockchain. I started with research on Bitcoin and Proof-of-Work and I think I understand that consensus mechanism. Now I wanted to continue and read some papers and FAQ's on Proof-of-Stake ...
Korbinian Hutter's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
46 views

What happens when you top up a fully withdrawn validator?

Does it automatically get withdrawn to original the withdrawal credentials of the validator? Please give references to the spec and/or eth2book.info when answering.
kolistivra's user avatar
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1 answer
125 views

Does block number increase when a slot has no proposed block?

If a slot has no proposed block (ie an empty slot), does the block number still increase?
dbmikus's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Why ETH gas fee is still expensive >$5 - $10 after sharding + POS?

I just notice that ETH charges $40 for a tx at the time POW + high demand $5-$10 at the time POW + avg low demand And $5-$10 at the time POS + low demand (current 2023) So can you explain more why the ...
Neo.Mxn0's user avatar
  • 113
0 votes
1 answer
261 views

How can i convert Ether from the PoW chain in to Ether on the PoS chain?

I am basically looking to convert the ETHW (proof of work Ether) to PoS ETH ( proof of stake ether ) and i understand that ETHW has no contract address, since it is NOT an ERC-20 token instead it is a ...
Muhammad Yasir's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
504 views

Why are Ethereum slots 12 seconds?

In Ethereum Proof of Stake, how was this particular slot time of 12 seconds decided upon? Credit: https://old.reddit.com/r/ethereum/comments/gb8j89/eth20_slot_time_a_question/
eth's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
62 views

Average number of skips for a block

Is there any statistical information mentioning the average number of skips for a block in Ethereum's Proof of Stake. Like if the selected(winning) miner is unable to mine the block(inactive) the next ...
erlich bachman's user avatar
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0 answers
56 views

How do validators pick transactions to fill the gas usage per block?

I was looking through Etherscan and noticed blocks vary widely in gas usage from one to the other. I was wondering how do validators pick transactions that they'll include in their pending block, as ...
Stephen's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
737 views

make a new PoS blockchain with geth (go-ethereum)

many tutorials out there tell how to create personal PoA or PoW chain with go-ethereum(geth), how to create a PoS based blockchain with go-ethereum ?
aakash4dev's user avatar
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1 answer
51 views

Calling a view function on different nodes

This question came up reading the specifics of view functions in solidity (https://ethereum.org/en/developers/tutorials/erc20-annotated-code/): This function is also a view, which means that it does ...
Mattiatore's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
73 views

How is the seed for choosing proposers calculated if RANDAO fails to produce new randomness?

I understand that RANDAO can fail to produce new randomness if one of the participants doesn't submit their secret. What are the exact mechanics of such situation? Some more details that would be ...
Aleksander Misztal's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
667 views

Blockhash and Block Timestamp manipulation in PoS

I was looking at generating some psuedo-random numbers in an Etheresum smart contract and understand that it is possible for miners to manipulate the blockhash and block.timestamp. The Solidity ...
chriscrutt's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
11 views

Is there any research on multi-currency proof of stake?

At the end of Vitalik's 2017 blog post "Proof of Stake FAQ", he has a section on multi-currency proof of stake where he says "there has been a lot of interest" in these protocols ...
Matt's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
50 views

In Ethereum's PoS, if an entity (an individual or a group) gains majority of stakes, can they hold it forever?

Since the staked tokens are not destroyed and every address with staked token is earning new tokens almost at the same rate, if an entity or a group obtain majority of stakes, they can hold it forever....
Mehran Shakeri's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
333 views

Why do we still pay gas in proof-of-stake?

When Ethereum was on a proof-of-work business model, gas had to be paid to miners to execute transactions. Now that the miners are gone in the new proof-of-stake system, why are we still paying gas on ...
user610620's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
117 views

How does Ethereum's proof-of-stake consensus algorithm work?

Ethereum uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm to ensure the integrity and security of its blockchain. Can someone explain in detail how this algorithm works and how it helps to maintain the ...
Superluminal's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
42 views

PoS: What comes instead of NewBlock(0x07) and NewBlockHashes(0x01)?

I see in https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-3675#devp2p that NewBlock and NewBlockHashes are deprecated, but can't see what comes instead to propagate blocks.
IttayD's user avatar
  • 131
0 votes
1 answer
109 views

How is calculated the "lowest hash value" in Proof-of-stake random block selection?

https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/proof-of-stake-pos-in-blockchain/ Dont know how you can get the "lowest hash value". Hash value in PoW I can understand, is it related? How does it work in PoS?
João Pestana's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
122 views

How to create Proof of Stake node?

I need to create a Proof of Stake node Ethereum but I'm not be able to find the solution. I know how to create PoA and PoW networks but have no idea about PoS. e.g to create a PoA network we need to ...
Ajaypratap Yadav's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
260 views

Should I run a 32Eth Validator or just use a POW Goeth Faucet?

I've with patience POW mined 32 Eth from the Pow Goeth Faucet and started a Goerli Validator; My reason? There's a bunch of scammers pieces of :poop: hoarding Testnet Eth and trying to sell it making ...
Casareafer's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
829 views

Why did Ethereum PoS NOT use Tendermint as its consensus mechanism?

I am trying to understand why Ethereum decided to create Gasper, instead of using an established algorithm like Tendermint. It seems like Ethereum is now trying to gain single-slot finality (like that ...
orangutan's user avatar
  • 145
2 votes
2 answers
133 views

Casper FFG: How can this below scenario finalize two conflicting checkpoints without violating either Casper commandments?

Casper FFG states that it is impossible for any two conflicting checkpoints to be finalised unless >= 1/3 of the validators violate one of the two Casper commandments. I struggle to see how this ...
orangutan's user avatar
  • 145
1 vote
2 answers
230 views

Casper FFG: Why can't we just finalize a block after receiving 2/3 votes in the justification phase? Why is the finalization phase necessary?

In Casper FFG, a checkpoint takes two voting sessions to be finalized. Say checkpoint c. First, c needs to be voted to be justified (supermajority link c'->c). Then, c needs to be voted again to be ...
orangutan's user avatar
  • 145
1 vote
1 answer
611 views

Is it possible to add a fake transaction or tamper a transaction

So, in proof of stake mechanism a node is chosen (based on the staked eth) to propose a valid block. The node just select the beneficial transactions out of the transaction pool and then bundle ...
Tushar Bharti's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
523 views

Randomness in Proof of Stake

The new Proof of Stake chain modifies the old DIFFICULTY opcode to be PREVRANDAO and changes its semantics (https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-4399). How does the new opcode compare to the old opcode ...
Lauri Peltonen's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
136 views

How many votes are necessary per slot? (PoS)

Most of the documentation I found online (Ethereum GitHub, specs., forums) contains either conflicting or vague information regarding voting. Every committee member votes (broadcasts attestation to ...
Boki XD's user avatar
  • 121
0 votes
2 answers
59 views

Is it possible to independently validate the whole chain in the ethereum?

In PoW system, a node can trustlessly check for validity of the whole chain just by checking the hash of every block correspond to the prev hash in the descendant block header. As far as I know in the ...
Amir reza Riahi's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
471 views

Finalized Blocks/Slots in PoS Ethereum. (theoretically) After how many Slots will an Epoch be finalized?

What I'm trying to find out is: After how many Slots will an Epoch be finalized (theoretically)? The first block in each epoch is a checkpoint and validators then vote on pairs of checkpoints that are ...
Majd TL's user avatar
  • 3,237
1 vote
2 answers
363 views

Why PoS block not strictly generated on 12 seconds

I'm trying to estimate the block arrival time in etherum PoS. I was given to understand that every 12 seconds, a new block will be generated. I did a simple calculation but the result is not expected. ...
Bai Bing's user avatar
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