Questions tagged [eth-2.0]

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Eth2.0 and Eth1.0 contracts in the future

We are all waiting for the new eth. But I can't figure out if blockchains will be interoperable in the distant future? Imagine that I have created a TimeLockContract that will be exposed in 8 years. ...
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Eth 2.0. block rewards

I have found a few models presenting the issuance rate of ether and it becoming potentially deflationary. Yet, I can't seem to find any written explanations about how these are calculated. I am ...
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24 views

publishing blocks with delay

this is rather a simple and fundamental question but nevertheless i couldn't find any solution for it and now I'm worried if it can cause real attacks to slow blockchains. imagine in a form of ...
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239 views

Proof of History for Ethereum 2.0

After reading about the Solana-chain, I became convinced that "Proof of History" is a great idea for syncing a decentralized clock and improving scalability. Be aware that Solana is still a ...
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What happens if the slashing protection history/database is a little outdated?

When a machine (machine A) with a validator running on it is dying for some reason, I would start it on another machine (machine B). To avoid slashing, I have to copy the slashing protection history (...
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39 views

What can be expected in terms of gas prices for the next Ethereum iterations?

Starting Ethereum dev here full of dApp projects. My concern is fees. Most of my applications are unfeasible at the current gas prices. How could I sell a digital product that costs 10 dollars with a ...
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Deposited more than 32ETH into deposit contract. Anything to retrieve the 32 - additional eth deposited?

Good day, I have deposited accidently 64 ETH into the deposit contract twice (Same validator key provided by mistake). Is there anyway I can retrieve this additional ETH deposited? Or assign it to ...
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Ethereum validators for a shrad. How do they sync up?

Validators are maintained by the Beacon chain, and then they are PRNG'ed by RANDAO for a time period t. So every validator could be told to propose or attest any block from a shard. The thing is as ...
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1answer
35 views

Why some validator have 2x32eth deposit?

I see some validators on beaconcha.in, for instance 0xae0a59afa484054a4960ee3699d7e518d9273ff65bab932d3217f69770a48ddfbe646d970a422c88adcff8117ce30f47 that have 2x 32eth deposit. The max active stake ...
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1answer
17 views

How do I handle Fiat payments?

Is there a good method/way of handling Fiat money in my dapp? Is there anything like Stripe but for use on blockchain?
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23 views

food delivery dapp: handling driver sort algorithm over smart contract?

So I have a few apps- driver, customer and restaurant. I want to do randomized driver assignment (automatic) when customer places the order. Is this practical for a smart contract?
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ETH 2 random election attack vectors?

Since proof-of-stake algorithms (like ETH 2) use random sampling to choose the next validator to propose the next block, are there attack vectors with this random selection? It seems to use RANDAO, a ...
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32 views

Eth2 Client Teku missing proposals: MissingDepositsException

My Eth2 validator occasionally encounters a MissingDepositsException. For the second time now my validator missed a block proposal with the exception: tech.pegasys.teku.validator.coordinator....
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ETH 2.0 underlying technological changes confused

i am honestly a little bit confused which technological changes we will see in ETH 2.0, pls guide me to an up to date technological explainer. is it true, that ETH 2.0 basically uses these 3 main ...
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247 views

How many transactions (TPS) can Ethereum 2.0 process?

Today, Ethereum has ~15 TPS, transactions per second. What will Ethereum 2.0 be able to process?
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127 views

How cheap will ethereum gas fees become after eth2?

How cheap will ethereum gas fees become after eth2? I am asking for the technical explanation that would help understand how the fees will go down and to what level they might reach.
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Dynamic State Access vs Static State Access vs Statelessness

I have been reading up on ethereum and the changes that come from going from 1.0 to 2.0, but was confused about the terminology of the different "state" types. Would someone mind explaining ...
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513 views

Can I avoid impermanent loss if I only as a LP of BETH/ETH pair in binance?

Can I avoid impermanent loss if I only stake ETH as a LP of BETH/ETH in Binance? Is BETH's price stable? If I don't want to hold any crypto assets except ETH,what are the best DEFI options to improve ...
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180 views

Eth 2.0 node software on Apple Silicon (M1 Mac Mini)

Is there any support for Apple Silicon (M1 Mac Mini) for running a Eth 2.0 beacon chain validator? None of Lighthouse, Nimbus, Teku or Prysm seems to have M1 support? Geth has M1 support, but seems to ...
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29 views

Blockchain failed to sync

I was syncing the blockchain using Geth and it stopped giving this message: Failed to write block data to ancient store err="appending unexpected item: want 5704756, have 5704757" I was ...
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63 views

How to debug missed eth2 attestations?

I run a couple eth2 stakers. Lately I'm getting a slightly higher number of missed attestations, that brought my rating down from 100% to 99%. Not a critical problem, but man is it annoying not ...
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1answer
58 views

Likelihood of malicious nodes in a shard

in his post https://vitalik.ca/general/2021/04/07/sharding.html, V. Buterin said: “Certainly, they can wait until they get lucky and get 51% in a single shard by random chance despite having less than ...
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36 views

Migrating ETH 2.0 staking stack from one machine to another on the go

I was reading through the eth docs but could not see any info about following: What can be the possible problems of migrating my ETH2.0 staking stack infrastructure from one machine to another. I ...
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Where are users of Ethereum 2.0 located?

I was going through some caracteristics of Ethereum 2.0 for research purposes and I couldn't quite figure out where the users are located ? As I understand, a validator is registered on the beacon ...
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5k views

Why is it so expensive to trade with Uniswap?

Please please please, I really would like to know by someone knowledgeable. I looked at the other responses but I still do not truly understand. It just doesn't make sense why anyone would want ETH to ...
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1answer
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Smart Contracts Sharding

In the current version of Ethereum Smart Contracts can call each other. It is planned to introduce Shards in Ethereum 2.0. But I can not find any information about how smart contracts are able to ...
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What will PR-2149 offer?

I've seen this PR-2149 quite a few times already and people are saying this is big for Ethereum 2.0. Can someone explain in simpler terms what will it offer?
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368 views

ETH2 Atomic Composability and Sharding: What does it really mean for DeFi users?

In the following post, Vitalik Buterin claimed that ETH2-Sharding will not break DeFi composablity: [1] https://ethresear.ch/t/cross-shard-defi-composability/6268 However, I am not at all convinced by ...
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1answer
131 views

How to stake ETH for Ethereum 2.0?

How can I stake ETH in Ethereum 2.0 network to earn staking rewards? How much ETH to I need? How much I can earn? How long do I need to wait to get my reward?
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Was the eth2 beacon chain merger sandboxed prior to launch? [duplicate]

From what I understand eth is supposed to ultimately migrate with the eth2 beacon chain then there's supposed to be some cleanup of the chains and they integrate. Was this process actually sandboxed ...
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24 views

Ethereum Staking Pools Fee

I'm looking at https://stakingether.com/ for the list of staking pools with the possible earning and fees the pools are charging. As I understand it, a fee is charged by these pools to provide their ...
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1answer
83 views

Ethereum2.0 Shard chains will be PoW or PoS

I'm sorry if this is a basic question. But will the new shard chains for Ethereum2.0 be PoW or PoS? I know the plan is for Eth1 mainnet to "dock" onto the beacon chain eventually and be its ...
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Will the tx fees of old contracts be greater or smaller than those of new contracts in ETH 2.0?

Will contracts that currently exist cost more or less to interact with after the ETH 2.0 upgrade? What about old contracts that call a new contract, or new contracts that call an old contract? Will ...
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1answer
133 views

Will Ethereum 2.0 support light-clients?

I am new to Ethereum, and I am trying to understand how different eth2 will be from eth1 in terms of connecting to the network and performing tasks. For example, in eth1 we don't need to be miners to ...
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Is the Ethereum 2.0 price fixed to the old Ethereum permanently?

I read that it will be possible to convert one old Ether for one Ether 2.0 but not vice versa. Is this correct and does the algorithm guarantee this "exchange rate" forever (and thus protect ...
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94 views

Are flash loan attacks possible in layer 2 async blockchain?

Flash loans attack has become a new normal every week. But I have read that it won't be possible in async sharding, but couldn't find enough information about it online. Is the information correct, if ...
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1answer
54 views

Verifying ETH Deposit Contract signatures using Chainsafe BLS library

I am attempting to verify BLS signatures using the Chainsafe BLS library. I am attempting to independently verify signatures associated with deposits to the ETH Deposit Contract. In order to test that ...
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25 views

How validator re-join is prevented?

According to this article, once a validator performs a voluntary exit, he can not rejoin: If you’ve performed a voluntary exit, or been slashed, you won’t be able to rejoin. This means if you want to ...
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Ethereum 2.0 - how to avoid being penalised when moving to a new location - is it possible to move the validator to the cloud?

Of course, I can test on testnet and try for myself but maybe you'll know. In the spirit of decentralisation, I would like to run my full node. But things change, I may want to travel (change location)...
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25 views

Algorithm to check if my ethereum account has successfully deposited to eth2 validators deposit contract

The eth2 phase 0 validators deposit contract implements a sparse merkle tree. Which algorithm can check if there is a successful deposit from my account? (Pseudo code)
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What does it mean that Medalla hasn't reached finality?

For a couple of weeks Eth 2.0 testnet Medalla hasn't reached finality. What does it mean? What are the consecuenses?
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920 views

After 48 hours, my validator request is still "Pending" (Deposited)

I'm playing around with Ethereum 2.0 Proof of stake for my upcoming guide Come fare staking con Ethereum 2.0 (italian only, sorry). I setup Go Ethereum and Nimbus, generated the required keys via eth2....
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918 views

On Ethereum 2.0 PoS, how/when are new coins minted?

In Ethereum "1.0", new coins are minted as reward for the miners. I understand from multiple sources (eg: academy.binance.com) that this won't be the case with Ethereum 2.0: When a node ...
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Does the amount of ETH in staking have to be exactly 32 ETH or only at least 32 ETH?

The amount of ETH to be put at stake in phase 0 of Ethereum 2.0 is at least 32ETH but, is it also a maximum? I know that the possibilities of being chosen to propose blocks depends in the amount of ...
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Can we deploy old deployed NFT contract to Ethereum 2.0?

I have already deployed contract on Ethereum. Now I want to deploy it on Ethereum 2.0, is it possible? According to some resources Ethereum 2.0 does not support for smart contract deployment. Thank ...
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What is the purpose of the Zinken Ethereum 2.0 testnet?

The Spadina testnet launched less than 2 days ago. What is the purpose of the Zinken testnet? What is being covered that was not covered in Spadina? Related: What are the Ethereum 2.0 testnets?
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What are the Ethereum 2.0 testnets?

There are many different Ethereum 2.0 testnets, among them Medalla Spadina Zinken What are the differences and what is their purpose?
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How can I easily get the Ethereum 2.0 network's fork digest and fork version?

Ethereum 2.0 nodes communicate through a libp2p network. Two indicators of talking to "correct" nodes on the same network are the "fork digest" and the "fork version" ...
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What does "participation rate" mean in the context of ETH2?

https://decrypt.co/41503/how-an-attacker-might-try-to-break-ethereum-2-0?utm=facebook Jelurida co-founder Lior Yaffe claims that a low participation rate could allow whales to crash the network. But ...