Questions tagged [consensus]

The process used by mutually untrusting users to agree on the validation and execution of transactions and smart contracts.

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Understanding the number of aggregations of BLS signatures

I know there are about 1 million validators in the consensus layer. As far as I understand, BLS signatures from some of these are aggregated in each block. But how does this happen in practice? In the ...
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Lodestar Becon Layer Error

I am trying to set up a beacon client for my private network, I got this error, Error: First offset must equal to fixedEnd 2736633 != 2736653. What does this mean? The config.yaml file for the beacon ...
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How "consensus engine" interfaces with on-chain contract data such as validator stake/pool

In some proof-of-stake Ethereum implementation that uses on-chain smart contracts to manage staking and validator selection somehow (any example would work), how does the client interact with that ...
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Observed Beacon Committee Sizes

It says here: https://eth2book.info/capella/part2/building_blocks/aggregator/, that beacon committees are between 128 and 2048 members. It's cool to know the bounds, but anyone have any actual data ...
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Proposer vs Aggregator rewards - who gets penalized?

Afaik, proposers get more rewards for more attestations they include. The issue however is that proposers grab from subnet(committee) aggregators of attestations. My question is does the aggregator ...
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How does an Ethereum PoS node software resolve social consensus?

As a new user, when I join the Ethereum network and want to know what the consensus chain is, I have to rely on social consensus, right — like for example I get two completely different states and ...
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Consensus with nondeterministic chain code

Ethereum Virtual Machine is necessary part of Ethereum network because it ensures deterministic code execution. For this reason, it is impossible to have chain code written in general programming ...
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Avalanche Consensus and how better it is than Ethereum?

Which consensus mechanism do Avalanche currently uses and is it better than ethereum and other EVM compatible blockchain and apart from consensus what others benefits does avalanche provides us?
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Do Miners/validators get rewarded for miming/validating blocks on Testnets

We know in in Bitcoin ,the miners gets an economic incentive i.e rewards for mining and verifying the transaction to the mainnet. But in case of testnet, there is no real rewards the miners or ...
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Do consensus-clients connect with any discv5 peer or is there any optimization?

I am looking at optimising connections between validators, and I was wondering how eth2 consensus clients handle this currently. Reading the specs at consensus-specs I couldn't find anything very ...
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beacon chain cannot sync with geth ethereum and error engine in geth

I had a problem while run Go Ethereum and Prysm. when both are executed, there is an error response on the Prysm beacon-chain and an error on geth ethereum. here is the error, Beacon Chain Geth ...
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What motivates Ethereum validators to accept new members of the network?

Among existing members of the validator network, it's clear what motivates them to accept blocks by other validators: not accepting a verifiably valid block could result in slashing. But what about ...
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Number of validators in a committee for a particular slot is not equal to the number of aggregation_bits for that committee in the slot

I was trying to make a program in which I store the attestations of the validators. But When I started running the program I ran into an error, which was that the number of validators in the committee ...
Rishabh Vasudevan's user avatar
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How to confirm that data has been written to chain?

Using this toy solidity example: contract ... { ... uint256 public value = 1; function setValue(uint256 x) public { value = x; } } Using ethers, if I call the above function ...
Justin Zhang's user avatar
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Is Beacon Node Consensus Client Lighthouse a buggy? Unreasonable for anyone to get CheckPointSyncURL who just start and decide to install full node

I have tried to sync full Ethereum node for 3+ weeks. Tried with 4 VPS servers and when I am gonna sync lighthouse and Geth simulatenously, it was working well. But after a few hours, lighthouse ...
DEFI Expert's user avatar
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Eth2.0 confirmation policy

In bitcoin a transaction is considered confirmed after 6 blocks. I read that a block is finalized after 2 epochs, but I've seen that some people suggest to wait 12/15 blocks. Why is that? Is a ...
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Beacon consensus client lighthouse syncing speed decrease every hour - might take 1+ month to sync fully

I am installing a full Ethereum node (for geth client only) in VPS Vultr. Last time, I tried 4 servers with different prices. Because its syncing speed seems very slow so I changed (upgraded with ...
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How is consensus reached in a Decentralized Oracle Network?

I understand the deterministic nature of blockchains thus the need for oracles to feed outputs of non deterministic algorithms or API-calls to smart contracts. Using a single node oracle would defeat ...
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Why are Ethereum slots 12 seconds?

In Ethereum Proof of Stake, how was this particular slot time of 12 seconds decided upon? Credit: https://old.reddit.com/r/ethereum/comments/gb8j89/eth20_slot_time_a_question/
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How to implement a custom consensus mechanism in Ganache

As a beginner in the Ethereum world, I have developed a blockchain network in Ethereum using Truffle, Ganache and Web3.js. I can deploy smart contract to Ganache network and transactions are included ...
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Run Execution Client without Consensus Client

I'm wondering if it's possible and if there is any reason to run the node only with Execution Client (Geth, or something else), but without any Consensus Client (Prysm, or something else) connected to ...
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PoSA(Proof of Stake Authority) and NPoS(Nominated Proof of Stake Authority?

The Proof-of-Staked-Authority (PoSA) consensus algorithm is a hybrid between the Proof-of-Staking and Proof-of-Authority consensus mechanism. Nominated proof of stake, or NPoS, is similar to proof of ...
Leon Africa's user avatar
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Is it possible to create a private custom blockchain which works on Proof-of-Work (POW) on Ethereum mainet?

I read somewhere that as of 2023, Ethereum is now using PoS consensus and hence will not allow any customised blockchain which is build on top of Ethereum to have any other consensus algorithm other ...
whynesspower's user avatar
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What happens if 51% of validators in an epoch vote for an invalid block

Hypothesis Full nodes that run both valid execution client and consensus-client would end up in a sort of deadlock and stop syncing. The consensus-client would try to feed the execution client with a ...
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Does empty slot (by the proposal being offline) mean no transaction processing for 12 seconds?

guys! When a validator chosen as the block proposal in a certain block goes offline, the slot goes empty. Does that mean that no single transaction is successfully processed for the slot (for 12 ...
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Where are the consensus rules for Ethereum located in the clients?

I am unsure of if they are now in the execution clients, or in the consensus client, or a combination of the two. I am specifically looking to find where a block would be marked invalid if there is ...
Kilimanjaro's user avatar
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Transaction pool validation of transactions and its relation to consensus rules

I see that the validateTx function in txpool.go in geth prohibits a transaction from entering the pool if it does not have enough eth to cover gas costs + the value it attempts to send. But is this ...
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How does Ethereum's proof-of-stake consensus algorithm work?

Ethereum uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm to ensure the integrity and security of its blockchain. Can someone explain in detail how this algorithm works and how it helps to maintain the ...
Superluminal's user avatar
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What is the underlying mechanism behind empty slots in Ethereum?

Ethereum docs says: However, occasionally validators might be offline when called to propose a block, meaning slots can sometimes go empty. What happens when the randomly chosen validator is offline?...
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Verifying Transactions before Finding Nonce

I am trying to learn theoretical fundamentals of Blockchain. In PoW, the miner who finds the nonce first gets to create next block and all other nodes add that block. Now, what I don't understand ...
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What is the definition of a Byzantine node?

AFAIK there are 2 types of consensus algs.: Crash Fault Tolerant - can withstand X% of nodes that "don't cheat" Byzantine Fault Tolerant - can withstand X% of nodes that "can cheat&...
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Network partitioning and FINALITY

Imagine China has switched the internet off. Half validators are in the China, half in the rest of the world. So we have a 2 separate networks (like a fork). Each side produces some blocks and votes ...
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FFG is based on pBFT which does not scale! How Ethereum still supports Millions of validators?

As long as I know FFG is based on pBFT algorithm which has finality but which can not scale. How Ethereum manages to reach consensus with node count > 100 ?
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How to measure if validator DID NOT propose a block in 4 seconds (so he should be slashed)?

I have read the documentation and from what I understood - if selected block proposer does not propose a block in 4 seconds, he is slashed. But how do we “measure” that 4 seconds? If some peers will ...
YodaDefi's user avatar
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668 views

Why did Ethereum PoS NOT use Tendermint as its consensus mechanism?

I am trying to understand why Ethereum decided to create Gasper, instead of using an established algorithm like Tendermint. It seems like Ethereum is now trying to gain single-slot finality (like that ...
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Casper FFG: How can this below scenario finalize two conflicting checkpoints without violating either Casper commandments?

Casper FFG states that it is impossible for any two conflicting checkpoints to be finalised unless >= 1/3 of the validators violate one of the two Casper commandments. I struggle to see how this ...
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Casper FFG: Why can't we just finalize a block after receiving 2/3 votes in the justification phase? Why is the finalization phase necessary?

In Casper FFG, a checkpoint takes two voting sessions to be finalized. Say checkpoint c. First, c needs to be voted to be justified (supermajority link c'->c). Then, c needs to be voted again to be ...
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How many votes are necessary per slot? (PoS)

Most of the documentation I found online (Ethereum GitHub, specs., forums) contains either conflicting or vague information regarding voting. Every committee member votes (broadcasts attestation to ...
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Are transactions duplicated in both beacon chain and execution layer?

What exactly is the content of blocks on the beacon chain? partially answers the question but still not complete to me. I understand that since the merge, execution layer info are in beacon chain. ...
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Finalized Blocks/Slots in PoS Ethereum. (theoretically) After how many Slots will an Epoch be finalized?

What I'm trying to find out is: After how many Slots will an Epoch be finalized (theoretically)? The first block in each epoch is a checkpoint and validators then vote on pairs of checkpoints that are ...
Majd TL's user avatar
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Why PoS block not strictly generated on 12 seconds

I'm trying to estimate the block arrival time in etherum PoS. I was given to understand that every 12 seconds, a new block will be generated. I did a simple calculation but the result is not expected. ...
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Consensus Client vs Execution Client

Since the merge, the execution client (such as Geth) is insufficient to run full-node on Ethereum. You also need Consensus Client (such as a lighthouse). Whats the difference between them? Which one ...
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Where can I find consensus client implementations' testing repos?

I'm currently doing a chain review for DeFiSafety (defisafety.com) and I had difficulty finding the testing repositories for the Prysm implementation (although any other testing repo could be fine). ...
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3 answers
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Do Light-clients still work after merge?

After the merge, my light client suddenly stopped working. Is there a way to fix this/ do I need to run a consensus node? Thank you!
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Where are the docs on transaction filtering?

Say we have a user that tries to make a fake transaction. Where are the docs regulating how it is checked before it is fitted into block (pre and post PoS consensus merge )?
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How can you make sure you have your fee recipient set correctly?

Using Teku, Prysm, or other consensus client, how can you make sure your fee recipient is getting the fees from staking? Is there a way to see where your fees are going on the block explorers? Should ...
Patrick Collins's user avatar
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How is double spending prevented or checked using Proof-of-stake consensus mechanism? [closed]

Recently I've been reading about this new blockchain network called Aptos( a Layer-1 Blockchain) which in it's mechanism explains how they let run transactions parallel to reduce latency. Now I wonder ...
Nihal Raj's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
1k views

Miner-modifiability of block timestamp after the Merge

Under proof of work, the Ethereum block interval varied, but miners could modify the block timestamp by +/-15 seconds, as long as the modified value was greater than the parent timestamp, without the ...
Luke Hutchison's user avatar
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How to fix the consensus issue with SoulBound Tokens - By Nathan Rawiri - From all things blockchain brisbane [closed]

The medium account receives a {soulbound} token. The person {steve} can choose to accept the token, or deny it. The body {ERC-721} can duplicate itself and pass an identical copy through to the man. *...
Raw Natural's user avatar
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Why ethereum before the Merge is called execution layer and the Merge is called consensus layer?

Doesn't the origin ethereum before the Merge have a consensus layer(the PoW consensus) too? If so, why it's called the execution layer now, and only the Merge is called the execution layer?
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