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Questions tagged [consensus]

The process used by mutually untrusting users to agree on the validation and execution of transactions and smart contracts.

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Decentralized Access Control in permissioned Blockchain

For a business use case I am conceptualizing for my master's thesis, wich is based on a Blockchain system, I need to understand impacts on decentralization/trustlessness. Many people argue that ...
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How do consensus vulnerabilities occur when parity nodes do not mien?

While familiarizing myself with Ethereum, I found multiple security alerts referring to consensus issues, most notable those that arose because the geth and the parity client handled certain edge ...
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Ethereum fork that implements transaction ordering

Hyperledger fabric has its consensus that contains Transactions endorsement Transactions ordering Transactions committed to a block I wonder if there is an Ethereum consensus or fork that would have ...
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21 views

Where is the function that rewards the miner address for mining the block?

I have recently been digging into go-ethereum and have 'plugged' my own consensus mechanism which requires a node to solve a simple equation (2+2) etc to seal a block. However, even after letting it ...
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30 views

Relation between the number of block and transaction rate in Quorum

I want to know the relation between the number of blocks generated and the transaction send rate in quorum. I did some experiments on quorum with RAFT consensus, and I get (I invoked the same ...
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How PoS Blockchains prevent miner from sending different block?

I'm quite new to the world of crypto and have been wondering, how different blockchains prevent miners/forgers from breaking it. As far as I know, (in PoS, for instance) a forger get's selected to ...
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45 views

Cloning geth and adding a POS consensus algorithm? [closed]

I am currently learning how to use geth, so far I was able to create a private POW and POA blockchain using one of its consensus types (Clique). I am wondering how feasible it would be to clone the ...
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22 views

Proof Of Authority Consensus and one authority getting hacked

What could happen if an authority (validator) gets hacked in a PoA consensus? Would it be able to block the system as it won't be able to mine its block?
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How do uncle blocks affect Ethereum world state?

Let's say you have two miners: A and B. Let's also say you have two transactions: one which increases a number at a smart contract by one (transaction X), and another which decreases the same number ...
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What is the max data and program complexity one smart-contract can support

I want to make a smart-contract for P2P trading. I am wandering if I have to create separate contracts for each bid and agreement between two entities, or I can simply create a single contract that ...
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29 views

How is the state “undone/reverted” after a longer chain is determined?

So say there is block_a, and block_b, both at height 1677. And a node accepts block_a, but then recieves block_b + block_c (which is mined on top of block_b), how exactly are the state changes made in ...
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POS and Ethereum - how are rogue nodes stopped?

How would rogue nodes be stopped under Ethereum and POS? What is stopping a voter who has a lot of token slipping into the network false data, eg a false name and address. That could be detected by ...
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Do uncles have any influence for consesus algorithm [duplicate]

Based on this question: What is the exact "longest chain" rule implemented in the Ethereum "Homestead" protocol? Is the situation still the same and uncles not counted for ...
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What happened in the Ropsten hardfork from Byzantium to Constantinople?

What were the consensus issues during the Constantinople hardfork in the Ropsten testnet? One noted consensus issue is: geth and parity have been in noticeable disagreement regarding block ...
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Is there a temporal reward in Casper, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?

In Casper, the consensus-by-bet proof-of-stake system, is there a temporal reward, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?
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37 views

Can we use Proof of Authority on private mainnet?

I am trying to figure out a way to use consensus algorithm on a private blockchain network, preferably ethereum. came across many suggestions. One of the suggestions which stuck was using PoA on ...
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how to reach consensus berween only 2 peers?

Can consensus take place between only 2 peers? Scenario: I am a patient who is visiting a doctor and all the communication/transaction between the both of us happen via a blockchain based app. So ...
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37 views

Dual blockchain

Could anybody please help me to understand how dual blockchains work? There are many Dapps which are built on dual blockchains, especially using the combination of Ethereum and Hyperledger. But I am ...
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70 views

Proof of Authority or PBFT

I want to choose a consensus algorithm for permissioned blockchain in healthcare. I know PoA and PBFT are good choices, but I want to know which one is better? Thanks...
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232 views

Is “Proof-of-work” a subset of “Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT)”?

Can we say that Proof-of-work is a type of Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) ? In other words, is PoW a subset of BFT ? Or they are two different categories? Please note that there is a similar ...
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177 views

Who runs Plasma's side chains?

If I want to start a Plasma side chain for a project, do I need my own blockchain for it (with X amount of nodes etc) or is it run simply by those who participate in it? If it's run solely by its ...
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42 views

Smart contract consensus - underpinned by transactions?

I can easily visualise how consensus can be reached on transactions in systems such as Bitcoin, but I struggle to understand how consensus can work in a smart contract platform - i.e how can nodes ...
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1answer
101 views

Nothing at Stake problem - eth wiki

I am trying to understand proof of stake consensus. I found some explanation about the "nothing at stake problem at the Ethereum wiki. Here is the part about the "Slasher"-solution i don't understand:...
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What is the Oracle Problem definition exactly and briefly?

What is the Oracle Problem definition exactly and briefly? Does it mean "trusting on a centralized Oracle" ? Or "How to reach a consensus between a group of Oracles" ? Is the matter "centralization" ...
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“consensus over state” vs. “consensus over events”?

Does someone know what is difference between "consensus over state" and "consensus over events" ? I found just title of a reference i.e. "Ian Grigg, blog post “The Message is the Medium,” 2017." ...
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78 views

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) vs. Proo of Stake? [closed]

What is the main difference between Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) vs. Proof of Stake? Is there any significant advantage for security? (since PoS in general suffers security problems.) And which ...
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What is the purpose of non-mining sealer nodes in clique POA private ethereum network with respect to the clique consensus

I did setup a private POA ethereum network with 4 nodes with 3 of them mining . I went on to try a lot of combinations with some miners and sealers and reached to a conclusion that every miner hash to ...
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119 views

What is the “main” difference between consensus mechanism of Bitcoin and Ethereum?

Bitcoin and Ethereum both use proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism. One of differences between Bitcoin Pow and Ethereum PoW is difficulty level, meaning that while in bitcoin block generation rate ...
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Change in genesis file without creating chain from the start

We're working with private Blockchain(PoA, 2 consensus node) and we've already created few blocks. Now we'd like to add some change in genesis file. So, basically question is, how can we support ...
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Can state in a smart contract be immutable

My question is referring to immutability of smart contract data. If I make a function in smart contract and write a conditional such that if a key of a map already exists jump out of the function and ...
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How do mrand.Float64() output the same result with same order in reorganisation?

Recently, I did go deep into the code of reorganisation in blockchain, but I'm confused by the mrand.Float64() in WriteBlockWithState. Here is the code: original code position // If the total ...
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1answer
61 views

How can I transfer half mining award to an address?

Creating a dapp, which requires half allocated mining fee should go to an address. I managed to cut down the mining as well as the block reward: consensus.go // Accumulate the rewards for the ...
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93 views

Proof of authority reward mechanism

Can anybody explain the reward mechanism in Proof of Authority (PoA) protocol? What kind of reward is received by the validators in PoA? So far I came up with the following points: There is no ...
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Quorum Consensus - BAR (Byzantine Altruistic Rational) Fault Tolerance / BAR Fault Tolerance / BAR Model

I refer to http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~dahlin/projects/bft/ http://www.cs.cornell.edu/lorenzo/papers/sosp05.pdf http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~fabianb/classes/cs-443-w07/BAR.pdf https://blog.ethereum....
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300 views

Validation of Smart Contract execution in Ethereum

Now I understand that miners will run smart contracts in Ethereum and other nodes in the network will be checking the validity of the contract execution from How is a node selected to run Smart ...
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Smart Contract as Part of Consensus Layer | Consensus enforced by Smart Contract

Often, consensus (POS/POW,PBFT,IBFT) is not associated with smart contract. but smart contract can also be further used enforce consensus as well? Perhaps to further breakdown consensus, there is ...
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79 views

quorum istanbul byzantine fault tolerance (ibft) consensus nodes count for failover - recommended configuration

In Quorum, specifically for istanbul byzantine fault tolerance (ibft) consensus algorithm, what is the ideal node count for failover? i.e., recommended configuration? Nathan Aw (Singapore)
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How does go-ethereum test the consensus algorithm

What facility does go-ethereum use to test its consensus algorithm? build/ci.go -test only has some limited unit tests.
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131 views

Quorum consensus protocol - Validating block

In the Quorum whitepaper it says "Once successfully validated, Voter Nodes send their vote to the BlockVoting contract using a standard Ethereum Transaction that is distributed to all Nodes. Since ...
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2k views

QuorumChain Consensus vs Raft Consensus vs Istanbul consensus quorum

I am reading about Quorum which is an Ethereum-based distributed ledger protocol with transaction/contract privacy and new consensus mechanisms. I have read about QuorumChain consensus and Raft ...
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Hyperledger Consensus protocol. [closed]

I'm soo deep inside the consensus protocols like PoW, PoS, PoA or other variants used on permissioned/private blockchains such as JPMorgan's Quorum (Based on Raft), Istambul etc.. But I've not ...
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1answer
3k views

How many transactions per second can Ethereum currently handle? What changes will allow the network to be able to handle more? [duplicate]

I've been searching for a more precise answer to this question, but I've seen a lot of conflicting information stating that Ethereum can currently handle anywhere from 12-45 transactions per second. ...
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1answer
591 views

Is Quorum production ready

Quorum is private permissioned blockchain network.Is it production ready or still in beta/Proof of Concept stage?
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138 views

How to test and bechmark POA consensus? [closed]

How test POA consusus that only authorized sealer can seal the block. How to run test cases ?
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87 views

What happened in the anomalous transaction, where an account was deleted despite out of gas?

In the Byzantium Revision of the Yellow Paper, Appendix K: Here is equation 195: Here is the transaction, It was made during efforts to de-bloat the state post EIP-150. It appears that the txn was ...
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1answer
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Finality in Casper: can full node delete everything other than block header and state tree after reaching finality?

In the coming release Casper, I am assuming after Casper reaches finality, the finalized block will never reorg. Is it safe for the full nodes to delete everything (e.g., all transactions) other than ...
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1answer
34 views

Is it possible to use low mining complexity to remove some certain transaction in the past?

I have a question that has concerned me for a long time. It relates to the security and reliability of the blockchain applications. Let's assume I want to build an application that uses Ethereum or ...
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1answer
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Incentive to vote early in Casper FFG protocol?

If I understand the Casper FFG protocol correctly, (1) all votes are public, and (2) the optimal voting strategy would be to observe other votes and vote accordingly (see this post, section "The ...
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252 views

How to introduce new consensus protocol for the Ethereum based application?

I am developing a Blockchain based application using Ethereum. Can I introduce my own consensus protocol for the application. Any suggestions would be appreciated. EDIT : Or will it be possible to ...
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Enterprise Version of Ethereum / Private Blockchains / Consortium Blockchains - How Malicious Actors are deterred?

Not sure if this is the right forum for enterprise versions of Ethereum but will try. Understand that through the use of Proof of Work (PoW) Sybil attacks are deterred in public blockchains. The ...