Questions tagged [consensus]

The process used by mutually untrusting users to agree on the validation and execution of transactions and smart contracts.

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What is the process for actual validation of transactions?

What is the actual process of validating transactions on the blockchain? For example checking that no double spend has occured? I know PoW and PoS is more or less the mechanism used to select who get ...
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A Fatal Flaw in the merge?

Maybe I am wrong and am misunderstanding something, but there is no validation done by the PoS chain. During the merge... let's say it happens at block #151... the PoW chain passes the blockchain over ...
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How does ethereum network keep consistent

Since nodes in Ethereum are decentralized and distributed, how does the system ensure consistency regarding the state of the blockchain. I am aware that a validator, once they find the answer to the ...
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Does data in memory variables get added to the blockchain? How does consensus work for memory?

If a function call involves a memory variable, does the data in memory get added to the blockchain history? If no, how come others can validate the transaction? Is the data only deleted after a block ...
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Proof of History for Ethereum 2.0

After reading about the Solana-chain, I became convinced that "Proof of History" is a great idea for syncing a decentralized clock and improving scalability. Be aware that Solana is still a ...
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What is the process for accepting an EIP?

I know the gist of how changes to the Ethereum protocol are proposed and formalized, by creating an ERC/EIP for the community to discuss and contribute to. But I'm unclear on the exact procedure for ...
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What are the most prominent dispute resolution frameworks deployed on Ethereum

Dispute Resolution may become a very important paradigm for multidimensional consensus systems such as Ethereum in the near future. In this perspective, I am going through the existing dispute ...
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Transaction Finalization

According to features of the Ethereum Consensus, the rollbacks of blocks are possible: the block (and so, its transactions) is considered as a finalized one if quite a long chain is built upon the ...
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If modelling an Ethereum blockchain, would you use PoW or PoS?

I'm modelling an Ethereum network that will hopefully form part of a PhD, which will be used to identify a blockchain's functionality in certain industrial situations. I wrote my MSc dissertation on ...
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What controls the inter-block interval in proof-of-stake?

In proof-of-work, the interval between 2 blocks is controlled by the mining difficulty: in Bitcoin, at all times, it must take roughly 10 minutes to mine a block, so every two weeks we adjust the ...
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High Block Validation

Suppose node A is running on height 2000. Node B sends to node A block with height 2002. Node A is not able to validate the block without having a block with height 2001. How does node A behave in ...
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Relationship among total and bizantine number of nodes in IBFT2

According to [1]: In IBFT 2.0 networks, approved accounts, known as validators, validate transactions and blocks. Validators take turns to create the next block. Before inserting the block onto the ...
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can someone explain this line of the whitepaper?

To show how ethereum had made it's language turing-complete Vitalik in his white paper gave this example: "To show the motivation behind our solution(i.e using gas), consider the following ...
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Who add a ERC-20 transaction to the blockchain?

I'm totally new in the blockchain area and this problem nearly drives me crazy !In ethereum, there is a miner who was chosen by the consensus algorithm to add a block to the blockchain. I viewed the ...
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What is the Probability of being chosen in Proof of Stake?

I'm trying to solidify my understanding of Proof-Of-Stake consensus, and one thing I've been left wondering is how to figure the probability of being chosen to be a validator. Are the chances of being ...
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What if the chosen validator down

What if the chosen validator does not create a block. How works consensus mechanism in this scenario over proof of stake
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How critical is timing to the Proof of Stake system?

I’m imagining that in the future it may be profitable for attackers to try to undermine consensus using novel means that are yet unanticipated. So I would like to contribute to speculation on possible ...
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Why does the Ethereum blockchain need a consensus network?

Why does Ethereum blockchain need computers to agree on blocks? If by means of cryptography, only the private key holder can generate the appropriate hash for a certain transaction, why not let a ...
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Why don't blockchains use simple voting based consensus algorithms?

Suppose we have an malicious agent Bob with account balance of 100 units trying to double spend a coin by broadcasting two messages simultaneously: A: Bob sends Alice 100 units B: Bob sends Emily 100 ...
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Casper Engine for Private Chains

Is there a version of the Casper Proof of Stake engine either CBC or FFG that is available for testing on a private network? If so is there a guide on how I would utilize it?
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Proof of Stake leader-election [duplicate]

So I understand Proof-of-work high level, where nodes work to solve a "puzzle". And once they've created a valid block they then broadcast it to the network. So that node receives the reward ...
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“Universal Proof of Work” with SNARKs?

If SNARKs are able to prove computations of arbitrary complexity and difficulty were executed correctly, would it be possible to use them to create a Proof of Work system where ANY computation can be ...
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In Ethereum, is it possible for a malicious client to duplicate a coin by double executing a transaction?

Is it possible a scenario in which a malicious client executes two transactions with the same nonce of a specific account and copies and sends coins? Suppose users A, B, and C have the following ...
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how does casper help with finality?

My question is very simple... I've watched some videos and read articles, but couldn't figure this. It's said that on the internet If the block has been finalized, it can't be reverted/changed in ...
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Does more miners mean lower gas prices?

I hope the question is self explanatory but, basically I wonder if the Ethereum code is made in a way that id there is more miners, would that in turn allow for lower gas prices or transactions to be ...
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What happens if two different states of smart contract conflict?

I'm newbie studying blockchain and Ethereum. While I'm studying, I've got a question. What will happen in the case of conflict of two different states on smart contract, e.g. from the network ...
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What is the difference between IBFT(Istanbul BFT) and PBFT?

I recently got to know about IBFT and Quorum and started studying on their consensus protocols. And what is the difference on IBFT and PBFT? Are they pretty much like the same and, when considering ...
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Finality in blockchain consensus

Is Absolute/ Immediate Finality a goal in blockchain consensus or does some areas work better under probabilistic finality such as Ethereum's Pow and to be PoS? (I know that some networks using BFT ...
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Block number as part of header rationale

It seems to me that block number is something that can be derived correctly by a node locally (from the parent block relationship). What was the purpose of including it in block header -> making it a ...
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Is Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding Ethereum) only PoS based? Or a combination of PoW + PoS?

Does Ethereum 2.0 (Sharded Ethereum) only use PoS (Proof-of-stake) for consensus mechanism ? Or Does it use a combination of PoW + PoS ?
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Where is the stake amount stored in Proof-of-Stake?

So in the PoS consensus algorithm, the nodes can lock their coins and the node with the highest coins has the highest probability of getting the chance for validating coins. I have two questions: 1) ...
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What’s the transaction ordering inside a block? [duplicate]

The game I found a game where each gambler needs to pay 0.02 ᴇᴛʜ to register a secret before the game before the games switch to status==reveal each day. Then, during the status==reveal period no ...
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How can I test a consensus protocol that I created?

Currently, I am designing my own blockchain consensus protocol and I want to test its performance. Is there any available tool or well-known framework that gives me this ability?
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How Ethereum supports in dealing with double spending problems

Let's us consider a scenario where I am using my ethereum wallet for creating a transaction request (where my account balance is 100 eth and I am doing a transaction of 50 eth to someone from one ...
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Are there more important "impossible triangles" aside from CAP theorem, FLP impossibility and Zamfir's triangle?

I have come across CAP theorem, FLP impossibility, and Zamfir's triangle ever since I began to study blockchain. As I interpret CAP theorem as the tradeoff between consistency, Availability, and ...
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How does Ethereum prevents a node from mining a block with tempered transaction?

My question is rather simple, and I found this question in the Bitcoin StackExchange that somehow relates to mine, although, for the Bitcoin Blockchain, which I'm not sure if Ethereum solves the ...
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PoW in Public blockchain Vs. PoW in Private blockchain

I am reading about consensus mechanisms in blockchain and it is stated that PoW (Proof of Work) requires longer confirmation time compared with voting-based mechanisms. But some things are not clear ...
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Could this work? Proof of Consistency?

So, I have been doing some research on Blockchain , for my dissertation, recently and had spent a lot of time researching consensus protocols. This had led me to wondering if there is any other ways ...
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How a consensus algorithm is implemented in a private Blockchain network ( ethereum )? [closed]

How to implement a new custom consensus algorithm in a network.
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How Proof-Of-Learning can be implemented?

Seen a paper on Proof-Of-Learning and wanted to know-how the consensus works and how to implement it in ethereum?
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Can block validation be done using machine Learning Algorithms?

I am looking for a new era of products that leverages the potential of Machine Learning and the blockchain, Thinking of different aspects of Blockchain which can be improved with the help of machine ...
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How a full node knows which chain to follow?

After Istanbul fork, my full node followed the longest chain which has: Longest Chain Highest TotalDifficulty It seems that the shorter chain of the core-dev closing the gap - total difficulty ...
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What's Ethereum's mechanism for transitioning to new consensus rules?

In Bitcoin, historically, several ways to fork the network in have been used: User Activated Soft Fork (UASF): on a certain hardcoded blockchain height the nodes simply start enforcing the new rules ...
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Why some transaction errors lead to discarding the whole block?

In terms of go-ethereum code, transaction errors can be grouped into (I made up the terminology) several categories by their effect on state transition. System errors: like database connection issues....
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Why is PoW needed to confirm transactions and add new blocks [closed]

I have read and I vaguely understand about how Proof of Work works and what does it do. But why PoW? Or more bluntly, why do we need any algorithm at all to add new blocks. What would happen if ...
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How the consensus informations are transported across the network?

Lets consider the scenario, if one node in India, finds the nonce (in pow) and it will generate the block and propagate to the network. How the block will move across the each and every node of the ...
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How to detect a consensus is BFT or not? [closed]

Can we divide consensus algorithms into BFT (Byzantine Fault Tolerant) and non-BFT ? If so, How to detect a consensus is BFT or non-BFT ? Is there any non-BFT consensus algorithm example ?
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Computational complexity of EVM consensus

Are there any resources that look at the computational complexity of running Ethereum on a private network? I am not considering any smart contracts or even transactions. I simply am trying to find ...
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How do I change the consensus algorithm for a network that i forked from github? [closed]

can i change the consensus algorithm for a network that has forked from github? is there any link to understand how can make changes to consensus
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Three questions

I have recently become interested in crypto and after much reading on Ethereum I still have three burning questions that perhaps some of you can help with. Apologies in advance as some of these might ...

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