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Questions tagged [consensus]

The process used by mutually untrusting users to agree on the validation and execution of transactions and smart contracts.

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Stakeholder entry censorship in PoS

If I am not mistaken, the following two assertions hold true for Ethereum PoS: An entity becomes a validator in the upcoming PoS block validation scheme by first issuing a special transaction to ...
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How does new block propagation, step by step, work in Ethereum?

I'm trying to understand how nodes propagate new valid blocks in Ethereum. Here's my attempt at a step by step how description of the process: 1. Miner constructs a new block and starts iterating ...
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Ethereum/Quorum Pluggable Consensus with Algorand Byzantine Agreement Protocol?

Can Quorum and Ethereum be possibly configured/modified to use Algorand Byzantine Agreement Protocol?
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What consensus are advised for a consortium supply chain?

Multiple organisations wants to share data around their supply chains systems What is the best consensus that is advised to use?
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20 views

How does number of miners impact in processing the business logic(smart contract) in Blockchains

Does a number of validating devices/miners have an impact on processing business logic? If I understand correctly, as the number of validating devices increases, the time it takes to reach the ...
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1answer
23 views

dApp exploit using multiple wallets

Im currently building a dApp where users will create content that then can be bet on by other users. The design opens up the problem of a user creating content,logging in with another wallet address, ...
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1answer
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How to prevent modifying blockreward in geth code?

I found below variables in geth file 'consensus/ethash/consensus.go' var ( FrontierBlockReward = big.NewInt(5e+18) //.. ByzantiumBlockReward = big.NewInt(3e+18) //....
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Who generates the mathematical problem for miners?

In POW miners solve an problem for successfully mining a block, who provide the question to the miners ?, does all miners work on same problem ?, and how the miners verify the answer ?, if the problem ...
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51 views

Decentralized Access Control in permissioned Blockchain

For a business use case I am conceptualizing for my master's thesis, wich is based on a Blockchain system, I need to understand impacts on decentralization/trustlessness. Many people argue that ...
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How do consensus vulnerabilities occur when parity nodes do not mien?

While familiarizing myself with Ethereum, I found multiple security alerts referring to consensus issues, most notable those that arose because the geth and the parity client handled certain edge ...
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25 views

Ethereum fork that implements transaction ordering

Hyperledger fabric has its consensus that contains Transactions endorsement Transactions ordering Transactions committed to a block I wonder if there is an Ethereum consensus or fork that would have ...
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41 views

Where is the function that rewards the miner address for mining the block?

I have recently been digging into go-ethereum and have 'plugged' my own consensus mechanism which requires a node to solve a simple equation (2+2) etc to seal a block. However, even after letting it ...
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1answer
63 views

Relation between the number of block and transaction rate in Quorum

I want to know the relation between the number of blocks generated and the transaction send rate in quorum. I did some experiments on quorum with RAFT consensus, and I get (I invoked the same ...
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89 views

Cloning geth and adding a POS consensus algorithm? [closed]

I am currently learning how to use geth, so far I was able to create a private POW and POA blockchain using one of its consensus types (Clique). I am wondering how feasible it would be to clone the ...
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29 views

Proof Of Authority Consensus and one authority getting hacked

What could happen if an authority (validator) gets hacked in a PoA consensus? Would it be able to block the system as it won't be able to mine its block?
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How do uncle blocks affect Ethereum world state?

Let's say you have two miners: A and B. Let's also say you have two transactions: one which increases a number at a smart contract by one (transaction X), and another which decreases the same number ...
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What is the max data and program complexity one smart-contract can support

I want to make a smart-contract for P2P trading. I am wandering if I have to create separate contracts for each bid and agreement between two entities, or I can simply create a single contract that ...
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How is the state “undone/reverted” after a longer chain is determined?

So say there is block_a, and block_b, both at height 1677. And a node accepts block_a, but then recieves block_b + block_c (which is mined on top of block_b), how exactly are the state changes made in ...
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POS and Ethereum - how are rogue nodes stopped?

How would rogue nodes be stopped under Ethereum and POS? What is stopping a voter who has a lot of token slipping into the network false data, eg a false name and address. That could be detected by ...
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What happened in the Ropsten hardfork from Byzantium to Constantinople?

What were the consensus issues during the Constantinople hardfork in the Ropsten testnet? One noted consensus issue is: geth and parity have been in noticeable disagreement regarding block ...
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Is there a temporal reward in Casper, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?

In Casper, the consensus-by-bet proof-of-stake system, is there a temporal reward, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?
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Can we use Proof of Authority on private mainnet?

I am trying to figure out a way to use consensus algorithm on a private blockchain network, preferably ethereum. came across many suggestions. One of the suggestions which stuck was using PoA on ...
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how to reach consensus berween only 2 peers?

Can consensus take place between only 2 peers? Scenario: I am a patient who is visiting a doctor and all the communication/transaction between the both of us happen via a blockchain based app. So ...
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44 views

Dual blockchain

Could anybody please help me to understand how dual blockchains work? There are many Dapps which are built on dual blockchains, especially using the combination of Ethereum and Hyperledger. But I am ...
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134 views

Proof of Authority or PBFT

I want to choose a consensus algorithm for permissioned blockchain in healthcare. I know PoA and PBFT are good choices, but I want to know which one is better? Thanks...
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1answer
414 views

Is “Proof-of-work” a subset of “Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT)”?

Can we say that Proof-of-work is a type of Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) ? In other words, is PoW a subset of BFT ? Or they are two different categories? Please note that there is a similar ...
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222 views

Who runs Plasma's side chains?

If I want to start a Plasma side chain for a project, do I need my own blockchain for it (with X amount of nodes etc) or is it run simply by those who participate in it? If it's run solely by its ...
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Smart contract consensus - underpinned by transactions?

I can easily visualise how consensus can be reached on transactions in systems such as Bitcoin, but I struggle to understand how consensus can work in a smart contract platform - i.e how can nodes ...
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1answer
137 views

Nothing at Stake problem - eth wiki

I am trying to understand proof of stake consensus. I found some explanation about the "nothing at stake problem at the Ethereum wiki. Here is the part about the "Slasher"-solution i don't understand:...
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225 views

What is the Oracle Problem definition exactly and briefly?

What is the Oracle Problem definition exactly and briefly? Does it mean "trusting on a centralized Oracle" ? Or "How to reach a consensus between a group of Oracles" ? Is the matter "centralization" ...
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“consensus over state” vs. “consensus over events”?

Does someone know what is difference between "consensus over state" and "consensus over events" ? I found just title of a reference i.e. "Ian Grigg, blog post “The Message is the Medium,” 2017." ...
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1answer
92 views

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) vs. Proo of Stake? [closed]

What is the main difference between Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) vs. Proof of Stake? Is there any significant advantage for security? (since PoS in general suffers security problems.) And which ...
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1answer
123 views

What is the purpose of non-mining sealer nodes in clique POA private ethereum network with respect to the clique consensus

I did setup a private POA ethereum network with 4 nodes with 3 of them mining . I went on to try a lot of combinations with some miners and sealers and reached to a conclusion that every miner hash to ...
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1answer
138 views

What is the “main” difference between consensus mechanism of Bitcoin and Ethereum?

Bitcoin and Ethereum both use proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism. One of differences between Bitcoin Pow and Ethereum PoW is difficulty level, meaning that while in bitcoin block generation rate ...
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Change in genesis file without creating chain from the start

We're working with private Blockchain(PoA, 2 consensus node) and we've already created few blocks. Now we'd like to add some change in genesis file. So, basically question is, how can we support ...
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60 views

Can state in a smart contract be immutable

My question is referring to immutability of smart contract data. If I make a function in smart contract and write a conditional such that if a key of a map already exists jump out of the function and ...
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How do mrand.Float64() output the same result with same order in reorganisation?

Recently, I did go deep into the code of reorganisation in blockchain, but I'm confused by the mrand.Float64() in WriteBlockWithState. Here is the code: original code position // If the total ...
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1answer
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How can I transfer half mining award to an address?

Creating a dapp, which requires half allocated mining fee should go to an address. I managed to cut down the mining as well as the block reward: consensus.go // Accumulate the rewards for the ...
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Proof of authority reward mechanism

Can anybody explain the reward mechanism in Proof of Authority (PoA) protocol? What kind of reward is received by the validators in PoA? So far I came up with the following points: There is no ...
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1answer
60 views

Quorum Consensus - BAR (Byzantine Altruistic Rational) Fault Tolerance / BAR Fault Tolerance / BAR Model

I refer to http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~dahlin/projects/bft/ http://www.cs.cornell.edu/lorenzo/papers/sosp05.pdf http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~fabianb/classes/cs-443-w07/BAR.pdf https://blog.ethereum....
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481 views

Validation of Smart Contract execution in Ethereum

Now I understand that miners will run smart contracts in Ethereum and other nodes in the network will be checking the validity of the contract execution from How is a node selected to run Smart ...
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Smart Contract as Part of Consensus Layer | Consensus enforced by Smart Contract

Often, consensus (POS/POW,PBFT,IBFT) is not associated with smart contract. but smart contract can also be further used enforce consensus as well? Perhaps to further breakdown consensus, there is ...
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107 views

quorum istanbul byzantine fault tolerance (ibft) consensus nodes count for failover - recommended configuration

In Quorum, specifically for istanbul byzantine fault tolerance (ibft) consensus algorithm, what is the ideal node count for failover? i.e., recommended configuration? Nathan Aw (Singapore)
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How does go-ethereum test the consensus algorithm

What facility does go-ethereum use to test its consensus algorithm? build/ci.go -test only has some limited unit tests.
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136 views

Quorum consensus protocol - Validating block

In the Quorum whitepaper it says "Once successfully validated, Voter Nodes send their vote to the BlockVoting contract using a standard Ethereum Transaction that is distributed to all Nodes. Since ...
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2answers
2k views

QuorumChain Consensus vs Raft Consensus vs Istanbul consensus quorum

I am reading about Quorum which is an Ethereum-based distributed ledger protocol with transaction/contract privacy and new consensus mechanisms. I have read about QuorumChain consensus and Raft ...
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2answers
398 views

Hyperledger Consensus protocol. [closed]

I'm soo deep inside the consensus protocols like PoW, PoS, PoA or other variants used on permissioned/private blockchains such as JPMorgan's Quorum (Based on Raft), Istambul etc.. But I've not ...
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1answer
4k views

How many transactions per second can Ethereum currently handle? What changes will allow the network to be able to handle more? [duplicate]

I've been searching for a more precise answer to this question, but I've seen a lot of conflicting information stating that Ethereum can currently handle anywhere from 12-45 transactions per second. ...
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1answer
655 views

Is Quorum production ready

Quorum is private permissioned blockchain network.Is it production ready or still in beta/Proof of Concept stage?
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151 views

How to test and bechmark POA consensus? [closed]

How test POA consusus that only authorized sealer can seal the block. How to run test cases ?