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Questions tagged [consensus]

The process used by mutually untrusting users to agree on the validation and execution of transactions and smart contracts.

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Are there a sub-class of transactions which do not change EVM State?

I was reading this article on https://ethereum.org/en/developers/docs/transactions/ . It said all transactions which change the EVM state must be broadcasted to the whole network . Just wondering if ...
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What does difficulty mean in PoA and PoS chains?

In PoW, the meaning of "difficulty" is quite straightforward and, for instance, fully described in yellow paper. (https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf) But what does the "...
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What is the aggregation_bits in beacon chain's Attestation?

The beacon chains Attestation data structure has an aggregation_bits class Attestation(Container): aggregation_bits: Bitlist[MAX_VALIDATORS_PER_COMMITTEE] data: AttestationData signature: ...
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How do miners rollback execution?

My initial expectation about how it would work in ethereum: A miner selects the transactions in the proposed block. If the miner's proposed block actually gets accepted into the chain via the ...
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How does blocks get copied from peer to peer?

Suppose a block is accepted and validated at a node in a blockchain at a particular gas fees...... so during the process of coping the block to the other nodes of the blockchain network, can it be ...
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How can I calculate a given Ethereum block's difficulty?

I understand that mining a block involves trying to generate a hash that is less than or equal to a target dictated by a required difficulty. Ethereum Wiki on Ethash: def mine(full_size, dataset, ...
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Where does Rust lie in the Web3 Space?

Have being thinking for some time now and I think rust is a low-level language, I guess stuff like a crypto wallet would need an innovative technology. I'm looking to apply my Rust skills in the web3 ...
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How does a node know the consensus and reconcile the differences?

There are a lot of similar questions like this, but I could not find satisfactory answers specific to my questions. 1.Purely from a single node's perspective, how does it know that the block it ...
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Transaction order in Ethereum Proof of Work

My Question is: How does picking and ordering transactions connect to Proof of Work Consensus Let me explain a little bit more: I'm confused about a concept in Proof of Work (PoW) on Ethereum. I ...
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Developing Consensus layer for thesis

im writing my Bachelor Thesis in Computer Science about Blockchain and Ethereium in general. My aim is to benchmark/analyze the Transactions per second by creating private Ethereum. In order to ...
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How do nodes reject a fraudulent block

I read about block structure, hashing, verifying transactions, but I am struggling to understand how a bad block is rejected by miners. Let's say I am a bad actor and win the PoW competition and I ...
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Consensus and Trust

So in bitcoin proof of work mechanism, whoever solves the math equation fastest gets to mine the block. If thats the case, this miner has a lot of say in terms of the direction of newly mined ...
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Does tx run in the order of being included in the block?

When the block is executed, Should the order of txs included in the block be the same as the order of the nonce? Or can it be different? For example, when trying to run three txs (nonce is 1, 2, 3) ...
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How does POS protocol handle the case where Staking node is offline

How does POS protocol handle the case where Staking node is offline and was chosen by consensus algorithm as the next block creator. Will the task be delegated to some other node? Let's say the node ...
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Is Finality Gadget a seperate concept

I have seen Casper FFG described as a "finality gadget". For example here: Casper FFG is a “finality gadget”, meaning that it describes the rules for finality of blocks, and detects the ...
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Proof of Stake Resources for research

I need resources/links/articles for proof of stake consensus algorithm for research analysis. If anyone has any resources, please do share.
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Can MATIC (polygon) block producers easily manipulate block hash?

Suppose a block producer on MATIC (https://docs.polygon.technology/docs/contribute/bor/consensus) is incentivized to produce a block with a specific hash. She just needs to randomly chose transactions ...
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What is the process for actual validation of transactions?

What is the actual process of validating transactions on the blockchain? For example checking that no double spend has occured? I know PoW and PoS is more or less the mechanism used to select who get ...
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A Fatal Flaw in the merge?

Maybe I am wrong and am misunderstanding something, but there is no validation done by the PoS chain. During the merge... let's say it happens at block #151... the PoW chain passes the blockchain over ...
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How does ethereum network keep consistent

Since nodes in Ethereum are decentralized and distributed, how does the system ensure consistency regarding the state of the blockchain. I am aware that a validator, once they find the answer to the ...
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Does data in memory variables get added to the blockchain? How does consensus work for memory?

If a function call involves a memory variable, does the data in memory get added to the blockchain history? If no, how come others can validate the transaction? Is the data only deleted after a block ...
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Proof of History for Ethereum 2.0

After reading about the Solana-chain, I became convinced that "Proof of History" is a great idea for syncing a decentralized clock and improving scalability. Be aware that Solana is still a ...
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What is the process for accepting an EIP?

I know the gist of how changes to the Ethereum protocol are proposed and formalized, by creating an ERC/EIP for the community to discuss and contribute to. But I'm unclear on the exact procedure for ...
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What are the most prominent dispute resolution frameworks deployed on Ethereum

Dispute Resolution may become a very important paradigm for multidimensional consensus systems such as Ethereum in the near future. In this perspective, I am going through the existing dispute ...
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Transaction Finalization

According to features of the Ethereum Consensus, the rollbacks of blocks are possible: the block (and so, its transactions) is considered as a finalized one if quite a long chain is built upon the ...
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If modelling an Ethereum blockchain, would you use PoW or PoS?

I'm modelling an Ethereum network that will hopefully form part of a PhD, which will be used to identify a blockchain's functionality in certain industrial situations. I wrote my MSc dissertation on ...
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What controls the inter-block interval in proof-of-stake?

In proof-of-work, the interval between 2 blocks is controlled by the mining difficulty: in Bitcoin, at all times, it must take roughly 10 minutes to mine a block, so every two weeks we adjust the ...
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High Block Validation

Suppose node A is running on height 2000. Node B sends to node A block with height 2002. Node A is not able to validate the block without having a block with height 2001. How does node A behave in ...
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Relationship among total and bizantine number of nodes in IBFT2

According to [1]: In IBFT 2.0 networks, approved accounts, known as validators, validate transactions and blocks. Validators take turns to create the next block. Before inserting the block onto the ...
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can someone explain this line of the whitepaper?

To show how ethereum had made it's language turing-complete Vitalik in his white paper gave this example: "To show the motivation behind our solution(i.e using gas), consider the following ...
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Who add a ERC-20 transaction to the blockchain?

I'm totally new in the blockchain area and this problem nearly drives me crazy !In ethereum, there is a miner who was chosen by the consensus algorithm to add a block to the blockchain. I viewed the ...
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What is the Probability of being chosen in Proof of Stake?

I'm trying to solidify my understanding of Proof-Of-Stake consensus, and one thing I've been left wondering is how to figure the probability of being chosen to be a validator. Are the chances of being ...
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Why does the Ethereum blockchain need a consensus network?

Why does Ethereum blockchain need computers to agree on blocks? If by means of cryptography, only the private key holder can generate the appropriate hash for a certain transaction, why not let a ...
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Why don't blockchains use simple voting based consensus algorithms?

Suppose we have an malicious agent Bob with account balance of 100 units trying to double spend a coin by broadcasting two messages simultaneously: A: Bob sends Alice 100 units B: Bob sends Emily 100 ...
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Casper Engine for Private Chains

Is there a version of the Casper Proof of Stake engine either CBC or FFG that is available for testing on a private network? If so is there a guide on how I would utilize it?
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Proof of Stake leader-election [duplicate]

So I understand Proof-of-work high level, where nodes work to solve a "puzzle". And once they've created a valid block they then broadcast it to the network. So that node receives the reward ...
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“Universal Proof of Work” with SNARKs?

If SNARKs are able to prove computations of arbitrary complexity and difficulty were executed correctly, would it be possible to use them to create a Proof of Work system where ANY computation can be ...
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In Ethereum, is it possible for a malicious client to duplicate a coin by double executing a transaction?

Is it possible a scenario in which a malicious client executes two transactions with the same nonce of a specific account and copies and sends coins? Suppose users A, B, and C have the following ...
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how does casper help with finality?

My question is very simple... I've watched some videos and read articles, but couldn't figure this. It's said that on the internet If the block has been finalized, it can't be reverted/changed in ...
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Does more miners mean lower gas prices?

I hope the question is self explanatory but, basically I wonder if the Ethereum code is made in a way that id there is more miners, would that in turn allow for lower gas prices or transactions to be ...
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What happens if two different states of smart contract conflict?

I'm newbie studying blockchain and Ethereum. While I'm studying, I've got a question. What will happen in the case of conflict of two different states on smart contract, e.g. from the network ...
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What is the difference between IBFT(Istanbul BFT) and PBFT?

I recently got to know about IBFT and Quorum and started studying on their consensus protocols. And what is the difference on IBFT and PBFT? Are they pretty much like the same and, when considering ...
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Finality in blockchain consensus

Is Absolute/ Immediate Finality a goal in blockchain consensus or does some areas work better under probabilistic finality such as Ethereum's Pow and to be PoS? (I know that some networks using BFT ...
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Block number as part of header rationale

It seems to me that block number is something that can be derived correctly by a node locally (from the parent block relationship). What was the purpose of including it in block header -> making it a ...
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Is Ethereum 2.0 (Sharding Ethereum) only PoS based? Or a combination of PoW + PoS?

Does Ethereum 2.0 (Sharded Ethereum) only use PoS (Proof-of-stake) for consensus mechanism ? Or Does it use a combination of PoW + PoS ?
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Where is the stake amount stored in Proof-of-Stake?

So in the PoS consensus algorithm, the nodes can lock their coins and the node with the highest coins has the highest probability of getting the chance for validating coins. I have two questions: 1) ...
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What’s the transaction ordering inside a block? [duplicate]

The game I found a game where each gambler needs to pay 0.02 ᴇᴛʜ to register a secret before the game before the games switch to status==reveal each day. Then, during the status==reveal period no ...
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How can I test a consensus protocol that I created?

Currently, I am designing my own blockchain consensus protocol and I want to test its performance. Is there any available tool or well-known framework that gives me this ability?
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How Ethereum supports in dealing with double spending problems

Let's us consider a scenario where I am using my ethereum wallet for creating a transaction request (where my account balance is 100 eth and I am doing a transaction of 50 eth to someone from one ...
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Are there more important "impossible triangles" aside from CAP theorem, FLP impossibility and Zamfir's triangle?

I have come across CAP theorem, FLP impossibility, and Zamfir's triangle ever since I began to study blockchain. As I interpret CAP theorem as the tradeoff between consistency, Availability, and ...
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