Questions tagged [casper]

Casper is a security-deposit based economic consensus protocol.

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What is Ethereum's inflationary model going to be after switching to Casper?

Some time ago I read Vitalik Buterin's blog post about possible attitude to inflation and transaction fees. From it it followed that nothing was decided yet and there are various possibilities. Has a ...
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Strange points of Casper algorithm

Currently, Ethereum developers are developing Casper Algorithm for Ethereum 2.0. According to their proposal, some validator are chosen randomly but validators has permanently authority to verify ...
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Is Casper FFG still going to be implemented?

What is the status of Casper FFG within the ETH 2.0 roadmap. Is the plan still that it will be implemented with Phase 0 or Phase 1? Or is the plan to adopt Casper CBC instead, and forgo implementing ...
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How is the block interval constrained in Ethereum 2.0

Sorry if i get any of the terminology wrong here, i'm no expert when it comes to PoS protocols. How does Ethereum 2.0 control for blocktime, typically we have the idea of a function that can be ...
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69 views

What are the anticipated economics of moving from PoW to PoS?

As the move to PoS gets closer, I'm trying to get more details on how the PoS validators will get compensated. In PoW, it is based on formulas and the awards are transparent. Not so for staking ...
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Impact of POS and Shrading on tx costs?

How transaction fees will be affected after implementation of Casper protocol?
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What are the formal specifications for the temporal reward in Casper?

Casper has a temporal reward where those who place bets early (on the block that ends up as the winner) get more reward. What are the formal specifications of that, how is the temporal reward ...
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how can validators validate blocks?

I have a question about how POS (ethereum casper) works. I am a little bit confused. So let's say User A decides to be a validator. So he has to have at least 1000Ether in his account to become a ...
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Active vs crystallized state in shasper

https://notes.ethereum.org/SCIg8AH5SA-O4C1G1LYZHQ?view# Active state means every single block produced on PoS main chain. Crystallized state occurs every 100th block. Only Crystallized state ...
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143 views

How will casper maintain time between 2 blocks?

In current proof-of-work, there is an artificial time delay introduced because of difficulty. This allows the network to accept transactions that ultimately form the block. Vlad argues that once ...
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Casper versus Proof of Stake on Other Blockchains

I get the impression that work on Ethereum's proof of stake protocol Casper is a tough project. What makes it so that bringing proof of stake to Ethereum is more difficult compared to all the other ...
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114 views

What will happen to the gas block limit after Casper?

Is there any reason to believe it'll go up or down significantly?
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Have there been any systems in use that are similar to Vlad Zamfir's consensus-by-bet?

Do prediction markets use a similar betting game where early bets give high rewards, and late bets give lower rewards?
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In Casper, theoretically how many validators could participate in consensus-by-bet (at any given block)?

Is the number of validators (at any given block) limited, and what is the theoretical upper limit?
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What attacks could be performed without a solution to “nothing at stake” (security deposits) [duplicate]

Without security deposits, there is no dis-incentive for signing multiple blocks on multiple chains, and so the validators incentive is to sign off forks when they come up. What attacks would be ...
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Will a non-programmer be able to participate in 'mining' Casper?

I have very limited programming skills. Basically, I am a layperson. Will I be able to participate in bonding ('mining') Casper? Or will participation in Casper be limited to professionals?
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How does interest work in casper?

Based on this answer: https://ethereum.stackexchange.com/a/37419/24310 How does interest work with casper? Is it correct to describe what the validators receive as interest?
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How much ethereum does one need for Proof of Stake?

Is there a minimum to have in order to qualify for this proof of stake?
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After POS is implemented, what stops mining pools from being formed?

There won't be "mining pools" but stake pools but what if someone creates a system where participants stake everthing in one place in order to make the mkst money? Is this allowed and is this a ...
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37 views

Is the requirement for signature of more than 2/3 of validators, weighted by deposit, a solution for the data availability problem?

The data availability problem is known to be one of the main problems in blockchain systems. So in case of a proof of stake scheme which requires a block to collect signatures of at least 2/3 of ...
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60 views

What are the challenges involved moving Ethereum from POW to POS?

I'm aware of the idea to roll out the POS protocol by using a hybrid model of POS/POW. What are the challenges of such a change? This hybrid model would make mixed adoption(for legacy users and new ...
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Ethereum Casper - Censorship

When 2/3 of the validators censor 1/3 of the validators (by not validating their txs), 1/3 would get slashed heavily and 2/3 would get slashed a bit in the Casper protocol. Isn't it very compelling ...
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78 views

Ethereum Casper block convergence

How does Casper achieve that all validators magically converge to a block without deciding the block deterministacally (stake-grindable)? How is this implemented in the testnet?
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Casper PoS - Nodes and code execution?

In current Ethereum, smart contracts are executed by the CPU/RAM of nodes who are rewarded the gas from the transaction. Will this be the same in Casper? Are there any pools for this specific purpose ...
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Scaling ethereum [closed]

I have been looking up scaling issues associated with Ethereum. I have not found any resources that give an easy to understand definition of the problem. I am aware that there are efforts like Raiden, ...
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472 views

Energy Consumption from Casper/PoS

I've seen a lot of articles saying that Casper/PoS will be substantially better in terms of energy efficiency but haven't seen any concrete numbers. How much better will it be? 50x (still really bad), ...
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300 views

Will Casper affect transaction prices?

To what extent will Casper affect transaction prices? Seems like it wouldn't affect gas amounts, but that it would lower the gas prices, owing to the lower costs of operating the network.
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What will a block look like post Casper?

Currently I think blocks look like [previous block hash + transactions + nonce], such that the hash of all that is less than the difficulty. After Casper what will it look like? I guess there is no ...
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“Fork choice rule” and its unclear concepts

This article (Link to article) explains the "fork choice rule". The first figure after the section "Fork choice rule" is really confusing (along with its explanation). The first question is that: ...
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Relationship between fault tolerance and network latency

I'm currently studying Ethereum's PoS and a sentence on the relationship between fault tolerance and network delays caught my attention in the Proof of Stake FAQ. Quoting Vitalik: In this model, ...
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In Casper, how to detect malicious miner

In casper document, it is only commented that honest nodes can report malicious nodes. Q1) I wonder how to detect malicious nodes. Q2) if honest nodes report some miners, how the blockchain system ...
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Ethereum Casper - safety vs liveness

Lets assume there are 2/3 honest nodes (non-byzantine). I call this set of nodes set A. Please tell me if I'm wrong, but AFAIK there are two main approaches, one that favors safety over liveness and ...
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Am I installing Casper FFG node correctly?

After I begin running the node (normally or with the miner turned on), I see this message: 2018-01-02 16:47:02,428 WARNING:p2p.discovery.kademlia recv ping from self?! Is this what should be ...