Questions tagged [casper]

Casper is a security-deposit based economic consensus protocol.

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786 views

How to RLP-encode messages in Solidity

I'm trying to figure out how to interact with the current version of the Casper contract from Solidity. The vote-function in the casper contract takes an array of bytes, which represents the RLP-...
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1answer
1k views

Once PoS and Casper is reached, what stops block times from dropping into the millisecond range?

After reading through Vlad's Casper Post, I am under the impression that Casper consensus will be reached when the validators all agree on a bit (more or less). If this is the case, why can the '...
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1answer
448 views

Setup PoS private network

I need to setup PoS private network with Casper and I cant find any official manual how to do it. There are only couple links which uses this git repo: https://github.com/karlfloersch/docker-pyeth-dev ...
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1answer
2k views

What is delegated proof of stake and why is it not suitable for Ethereum?

Ethereum will switch to Proof Of Stake in some future hard fork called Serenity. For this putpose a new Proof Of Stake protocol called Casper is being developed.[1] However, there are quite a few ...
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1answer
409 views

Casper proposal mechanism

I do not understand how the proposal mechanism illutstrated here works. A proposal mechanism is a mechanism that proposes hashes, which the rest of the machinery with PREPARE and COMMIT messages ...
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0answers
149 views

Metropolis Constantinple Casper

In 2017 there was the Metropolis hardfork. In 2018 or so there will be Constaninople. Is Constaninople a full PoS fork or will it be hybrid like 1 block of 200 will be PoS mined? Will there be a ...
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0answers
165 views

What makes the blockchain immutable in Proof-of-Stake? [duplicate]

In Proof-of-Work, it's difficult to edit/delete data on the blockchain because of the millions of hashes performed before generating a block. It would be impossible for a single attacker to have 51% ...
2
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1answer
90 views

Where can I get latest Ethereum2 information? [closed]

Somtimes Ethereum developers like Vitalik mention about Ethereum2. Where can I get latest information about Ethereum2 ideas or roadmap?
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1answer
311 views

How will the number of confirmations for security change with Casper?

How will this answer change when Casper is deployed?
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1answer
102 views

Reason for World State

All Ethereum blocks contain a stateRoot field - That is, the root hash of the world state trie. I have two questions about that. From what I've understood through all the reading I've done on Casper ...
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1answer
673 views

Problem with Casper FFG?

I am following Theorem 2 from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.09437.pdf I am referring to this example https://imgur.com/hwfYZor Let a be the justified checkpoint with greatest height. Suppose that half ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Does next hard frok (initial PoS implementation) remove difficulty bomb?

To my understanding, we now started something called ice age period where difficulty bomb becomes harder exponentially and this was implemented to make sure everyone switches to new PoS chain when it ...
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1answer
2k views

What is network weight and my weight?

What does it mean by my weight and the network weight in POS ? -Thanks.
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1answer
379 views

ETH vs Tokens price issue [duplicate]

Is there any possibility for one token (e.g. Augur's REP) to become more valuable than the total Ether market cap? If so, how would that be possible? In Security of PoS if/when Assets (Tracked or ...
2
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1answer
49 views

What signatures will be used for Casper bets?

In this blog post, Vlad Zamfir describes a bet as a object with a signature. What kind of signature will Casper bets have? What is the length (in bytes) of those signatures?
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2answers
237 views

What is the network overhead of Casper?

In Bitcoin the PoW mining has very little overhead in terms of bandwidth. The miners simply need to produce the PoW, which I believe is 32 bytes per 10 minutes. In Casper I understand every validator ...
2
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1answer
28 views

I am looking for a recent four part set of articles on Casper

Can somebody give me links to the recent articles on the history and design of casper? I saw a part 3 and a part 4, but don't recall who wrote them and I want to start with part 1 and part 2.
2
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1answer
56 views

Casper slashes nodes with poor network connection?

Moving from PoW to PoS sounds reasonable as it's more environmentally friendly and costs less to compensate miners. However, I heard Casper will slash uncles to disincentives them from forming a ...
2
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1answer
185 views

Solutions for orphan rate in Casper PoS? [closed]

What are some possible solutions to deal with the increased orphan rate when Ethereum shifts to its Proof-of-Stake system, Casper?
2
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1answer
63 views

How many times can you try to create a candidate block/sec in Casper?

According to this post, you can create only one candidate block/sec for next block in general POS formula. Same in Casper? If it's different, how many candidate blocks can you create in a second in ...
2
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1answer
230 views

How will the transition from PoW to Casper's PoS work? [duplicate]

How will the transition from PoW to Casper's PoS work? Is there a spec written? Have there been any tests? Has code or documentation been written?
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0answers
53 views

What is the maximum number of validators in current PoC of Eth2.0?

In the current spec no maximum number of validators is mentioned: https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/master/specs/beacon-chain.md but is there some implicit upper bound for the number of ...
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0answers
32 views

Is there a temporal reward in Casper, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?

In Casper, the consensus-by-bet proof-of-stake system, is there a temporal reward, that the earlier you place bets, the more you are rewarded?
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38 views

How does Casper record votes efficiently?

I keep reading about Casper doling out rewards and punishments for voters based on how they're voting. If I am understanding this correctly, it seems that Casper punishes nodes that submit votes to ...
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0answers
66 views

will Casper FFG be included in Constantinople hardfork?

According to recent dev meeting, Constantinople hardfork is going to happen on October 2018.
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2answers
124 views

Casper Friendly Finality Gadget - Greater degrees of transaction/settlement finality over existing PoW?

With Casper Friendly Finality Gadget, can one expect greater degrees of transaction/settlement finality over existing PoW?
2
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2answers
223 views

Method for staking coins in Casper FFG

When Ethereum changes to a PoW/PoS hybrid (Casper FFG), how will the staking process work? I heard that there might be smart-contracts and you need to send your coins to the contract to stake the ...
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0answers
77 views

In Casper, does the block producer also get mining rewards, or only those who bet on the block?

In Casper, validators produce blocks, and then bet on whose block will be added to the state, and those who bet with the consensus are rewarded. Is the block producer also rewarded?
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116 views

Who proposes blocks in Ethereum Casper the Friendly Ghost

I am trying to understand how CTFG is supposed to work. The available online blogs provide a fairly high-level overview. What I have understood so far is that validators will bet on the blocks as they ...
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0answers
233 views

What does Vlad Zamfir mean by 'the fork-choice rule is stateful'?

Does he mean the rule to determine the next blockchain requires knowing the state of currently bonded validators? This “out-of-band authentication only necessarily once” property is what Vitalik ...
2
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0answers
140 views

What are transaction costs likely to be after Casper? [closed]

It presently costs X to send a simple transaction. Assuming the price of ether stays constant, what is a theoretical estimate for the new cost of the same sort of transaction after Casper? i.e X/10?
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0answers
240 views

Casper protocol: is it right?

I'm reading about Casper protocol and the hybrid solution that Ethereum is going to adopt in the first place. Can you tell me if I understand the mechanism well? The hybrid solution initially ...
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0answers
141 views

In consensus-by-bet, are all bets registered on the chain?

From Vlad: Validators bet independently on blocks at every height (i.e. block number) by assigning it a probability and publishing it as a bet. Through iterative betting, the validators elect ...
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0answers
358 views

Why is there a limit to number of validators?

In Casper and consensus-by-bet, validators make bets, and converge on a block at each block height, etc. In the Casper PoCs so far, the number of validators at any given block has been limited to 250, ...
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0answers
90 views

Difference between security deposit and stake in Casper?

Is the security deposit equal to the amount of staked ETH, or is the deposit a separate thing?
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0answers
81 views

Does EIP 134 allow a variants on PoS where everything is at stake?

EIP 134 allows a transaction to specify which chain it is occur on. In its original inception, this would be accomplished by specifying a recent block of the desired chain and a number 0-255 that ...
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1answer
80 views

Official Update on Ethereum 2.0?

I'm trying to catch up with Ethereum 2.0, but Vitalik's keynote at devcon4 confused me. Is that keynote an official update? If it's official, Casper FFG will no longer be implemented, correct? I don'...
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1answer
1k views

Speed of Ethereum for real time DApp

Currently the block time is around 17s but the confirmation time is even longer around 2-3 minutes. Moreover, as I understand even if the transactions-per-second are 7 we still need to wait the ...
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1answer
24 views

“Fork choice rule” : A general term? or a specific algorithm?

Is "Fork choice rule" a general term including all the algorithms used for choosing a branch among other branches in a fork (including longest chain rule etc) ? Or is it a specific algorithm designed ...
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1answer
5k views

What is the transaction confirmation time for ERC20 based token? [duplicate]

In case of Bitcoin, it is 10 min. What is the case for ETH or ERC20 based token? And what's the confirmation time change after Casper update?
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1answer
22 views

Why is the Casper update delayed?

The update is scheduled to last year, but it is delayed. Does anyone know the exact reasons? Where is a related website? Thank you.
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2answers
46 views

What is meant by locking of ether in proof of stake?

In PoS, forgers stake their ether on a block. These ether are locked and can't be used. What does it mean by locking of ether and how does it work?
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1answer
324 views

During the POW/POS transition, why would a POW miner choose to mine on the chain with the POS consensus algorithm?

As the title says, what incentive does a POW miner have to mine on the hybrid POS chain? They would, effectively, be removing their own economic incentive from the consensus mechanism. I understand ...
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1answer
70 views

Ethereum proof of stake - Is transaction finality/settlement finality finally possible / within reach?

With Ethereum proof of stake, is transaction finality/settlement finality finally possible / within reach?
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1answer
94 views

Will Casper be “backwards compatible” with currently issued tokens such as ERC20 tokens?

With Casper now available for testing, does the protocol work with regular ERC20 tokens? For example if Casper becomes the main protocol for the whole Ethereum network and the old PoW method is gone,...
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1answer
496 views

BFT vs On-chain POW

What significant advantages does BFT provide over On-chain POW solutions and why or why not are they not more commonly used?
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1answer
26 views

Won't Casper mean that the processing power of the network is reduced?

Something just occurred to me. The whole point of Ethereum is to act as a giant global computer. Currently that computer utilises many thousands of GPUs. When we switch to Casper I will end up mining ...
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1answer
148 views

Who can participate in Casper?

From what I understand, non-validators will feel benefits from the change to casper. However, is it only validators that can actually participate in Casper? Is it correct that if you have etehreum in ...
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1answer
157 views

What are light node's role in Casper?

So casper testnet is out and I have a few questions! From previous discussions it seems that light nodes cannot be validators. If this is correct, then what will the purpose of light nodes be as ...
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3answers
240 views

Does Proof-of-Stake consensus require a blockchain?

In a proof-of-work blockchain, the validity of the network is ensured by the hashes of each block pointing to the previous block. A "block on its own" would not be very trustworthy and, without all ...