Questions tagged [casper]

Casper is a security-deposit based economic consensus protocol.

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421 views

What is the difference between Casper and Algorand?

What is the difference between Casper and Algorand? Casper -- Proof of Stake-Based Finality System overlaying an existing proof of work blockchain Algorand -- Byzantine Consensus Based Protocol and?...
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How will casper maintain time between 2 blocks?

In current proof-of-work, there is an artificial time delay introduced because of difficulty. This allows the network to accept transactions that ultimately form the block. Vlad argues that once ...
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Speed of Ethereum for real time DApp

Currently the block time is around 17s but the confirmation time is even longer around 2-3 minutes. Moreover, as I understand even if the transactions-per-second are 7 we still need to wait the ...
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Who proposes blocks in Ethereum Casper the Friendly Ghost

I am trying to understand how CTFG is supposed to work. The available online blogs provide a fairly high-level overview. What I have understood so far is that validators will bet on the blocks as they ...
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Casper PoS - Nodes and code execution?

In current Ethereum, smart contracts are executed by the CPU/RAM of nodes who are rewarded the gas from the transaction. Will this be the same in Casper? Are there any pools for this specific purpose ...
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261 views

How does interest work in casper?

Based on this answer: https://ethereum.stackexchange.com/a/37419/24310 How does interest work with casper? Is it correct to describe what the validators receive as interest?
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Scaling ethereum [closed]

I have been looking up scaling issues associated with Ethereum. I have not found any resources that give an easy to understand definition of the problem. I am aware that there are efforts like Raiden, ...
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1answer
152 views

Who can participate in Casper?

From what I understand, non-validators will feel benefits from the change to casper. However, is it only validators that can actually participate in Casper? Is it correct that if you have etehreum in ...
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What does Vlad Zamfir mean by 'the fork-choice rule is stateful'?

Does he mean the rule to determine the next blockchain requires knowing the state of currently bonded validators? This “out-of-band authentication only necessarily once” property is what Vitalik ...
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Casper versus Proof of Stake on Other Blockchains

I get the impression that work on Ethereum's proof of stake protocol Casper is a tough project. What makes it so that bringing proof of stake to Ethereum is more difficult compared to all the other ...
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Overview of Ethereum Milestones?

In 2017 there was the Metropolis hardfork. In 2018 there will be Constantinople. Is Constantinople a full PoS fork or will it be hybrid like 1 block of 200 will be PoS mined? Will there be a Casper ...
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What are light node's role in Casper?

So casper testnet is out and I have a few questions! From previous discussions it seems that light nodes cannot be validators. If this is correct, then what will the purpose of light nodes be as ...
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Am I installing Casper FFG node correctly?

After I begin running the node (normally or with the miner turned on), I see this message: 2018-01-02 16:47:02,428 WARNING:p2p.discovery.kademlia recv ping from self?! Is this what should be ...
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How does the 'secret chain' catch up with the real chain in the long range attack?

I'm trying to dig deep into Casper and one of the things that keep coming up is the long-range attack in PoS. I understand the attack at a high level - basically you would go back some large amount of ...
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Energy Consumption from Casper/PoS

I've seen a lot of articles saying that Casper/PoS will be substantially better in terms of energy efficiency but haven't seen any concrete numbers. How much better will it be? 50x (still really bad), ...
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What will happen to the gas block limit after Casper?

Is there any reason to believe it'll go up or down significantly?
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What is delegated proof of stake and why is it not suitable for Ethereum?

Ethereum will switch to Proof Of Stake in some future hard fork called Serenity. For this putpose a new Proof Of Stake protocol called Casper is being developed.[1] However, there are quite a few ...
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Casper-FFG vs Casper-GHOST-CBC

I find this super-confusing, but there are two consensus algorithms under the name Casper: Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget by Vitalik; Casper the Friendly GHOST (a.k.a. "correct-by-construction") ...
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Proof of Stake - Is it risky to stake?

What if a client malfunctions due to the corruption of data isn't it risky to stake? With PoW this is no issue but with PoS this seems to be a real issue with the slasher protocol. I would be worried ...
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What are transaction costs likely to be after Casper? [closed]

It presently costs X to send a simple transaction. Assuming the price of ether stays constant, what is a theoretical estimate for the new cost of the same sort of transaction after Casper? i.e X/10?
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Casper protocol: is it right?

I'm reading about Casper protocol and the hybrid solution that Ethereum is going to adopt in the first place. Can you tell me if I understand the mechanism well? The hybrid solution initially ...
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Will Casper affect transaction prices?

To what extent will Casper affect transaction prices? Seems like it wouldn't affect gas amounts, but that it would lower the gas prices, owing to the lower costs of operating the network.
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What is the transaction confirmation time for ERC20 based token? [duplicate]

In case of Bitcoin, it is 10 min. What is the case for ETH or ERC20 based token? And what's the confirmation time change after Casper update?
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What will a block look like post Casper?

Currently I think blocks look like [previous block hash + transactions + nonce], such that the hash of all that is less than the difficulty. After Casper what will it look like? I guess there is no ...
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Does Proof-of-Stake consensus require a blockchain?

In a proof-of-work blockchain, the validity of the network is ensured by the hashes of each block pointing to the previous block. A "block on its own" would not be very trustworthy and, without all ...
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Casper: will you need to buy the right to be a validator or will it be free?

According to this document: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Xf_iHGI51Lp6nVHPZo0SdUw60-NA6YJUvk2s-eYaxLE citation 1: maxDeposit - the maximum deposit allowed to become a proof of stake ...
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Ethereum POS economics question about gravitating all ether supply to stake

Please, dispel my doubts about POS, miners rewards and too strong incentives to participate in it that could lead to almost total supply of ether locked in stake. So, we have: Et - total Ether ...
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What logic controls Proof of Stake voting?

NOTICE: This question is now outdated; it refers to one of the older plans for the Casper Proof of Stake validation concept (including validators voting on multiple heights at once). The updated (...
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Have there been any systems in use that are similar to Vlad Zamfir's consensus-by-bet?

Do prediction markets use a similar betting game where early bets give high rewards, and late bets give lower rewards?
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How much ethereum does one need for Proof of Stake?

Is there a minimum to have in order to qualify for this proof of stake?
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In consensus-by-bet, are all bets registered on the chain?

From Vlad: Validators bet independently on blocks at every height (i.e. block number) by assigning it a probability and publishing it as a bet. Through iterative betting, the validators elect ...
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Why is there a limit to number of validators?

In Casper and consensus-by-bet, validators make bets, and converge on a block at each block height, etc. In the Casper PoCs so far, the number of validators at any given block has been limited to 250, ...
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In Casper, theoretically how many validators could participate in consensus-by-bet (at any given block)?

Is the number of validators (at any given block) limited, and what is the theoretical upper limit?
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What attacks could be performed without a solution to “nothing at stake” (security deposits) [duplicate]

Without security deposits, there is no dis-incentive for signing multiple blocks on multiple chains, and so the validators incentive is to sign off forks when they come up. What attacks would be ...
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Difference between security deposit and stake in Casper?

Is the security deposit equal to the amount of staked ETH, or is the deposit a separate thing?
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Will a non-programmer be able to participate in 'mining' Casper?

I have very limited programming skills. Basically, I am a layperson. Will I be able to participate in bonding ('mining') Casper? Or will participation in Casper be limited to professionals?
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Does next hard frok (initial PoS implementation) remove difficulty bomb?

To my understanding, we now started something called ice age period where difficulty bomb becomes harder exponentially and this was implemented to make sure everyone switches to new PoS chain when it ...
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Why did Ethereum not start with Proof of Stake?

I had been reading up on Proof of Stake and the advantages and disadvantages. As if I am correctly informed, it is planned to change from PoW to PoS in the near future, using Casper. I had also been ...
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Understanding economic finality in PoW and PoS

Before I get into the question I wanted to point out that I am referring to a specific part of a specific article. You don't actually have to read the article to help with the question but it's here ...
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Casper proposal mechanism

I do not understand how the proposal mechanism illutstrated here works. A proposal mechanism is a mechanism that proposes hashes, which the rest of the machinery with PREPARE and COMMIT messages ...
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What is Ethereum's inflationary model going to be after switching to Casper?

Some time ago I read Vitalik Buterin's blog post about possible attitude to inflation and transaction fees. From it it followed that nothing was decided yet and there are various possibilities. Has a ...
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Once PoS and Casper is reached, what stops block times from dropping into the millisecond range?

After reading through Vlad's Casper Post, I am under the impression that Casper consensus will be reached when the validators all agree on a bit (more or less). If this is the case, why can the '...
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Will a higher stake make more money in PoS?

Since I'm very new to this I'm just going to assume I'm getting it wrong. But here it goes anyway... The higher my stake, the more money I make. This is my raw understanding of how proof of stake ...
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Solutions for orphan rate in Casper PoS? [closed]

What are some possible solutions to deal with the increased orphan rate when Ethereum shifts to its Proof-of-Stake system, Casper?
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How do Casper's validators compare to Dash's masternodes?

Both of these networks are going to have a smaller subset of "privileged" nodes with similar properties (like storing large amounts of currency, receiving part of block rewards). Are there further ...
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How many times can you try to create a candidate block/sec in Casper?

According to this post, you can create only one candidate block/sec for next block in general POS formula. Same in Casper? If it's different, how many candidate blocks can you create in a second in ...
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1answer
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Where can I get latest Ethereum2 information? [closed]

Somtimes Ethereum developers like Vitalik mention about Ethereum2. Where can I get latest information about Ethereum2 ideas or roadmap?
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What makes the blockchain immutable in Proof-of-Stake? [duplicate]

In Proof-of-Work, it's difficult to edit/delete data on the blockchain because of the millions of hashes performed before generating a block. It would be impossible for a single attacker to have 51% ...
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Casper betting details

What incentive is there for validators to bet on a block early, rather than just waiting for the rest of the validators to reach consensus first? AFAICT, the reward/penalty is independent of when the ...
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Does EIP 134 allow a variants on PoS where everything is at stake?

EIP 134 allows a transaction to specify which chain it is occur on. In its original inception, this would be accomplished by specifying a recent block of the desired chain and a number 0-255 that ...