Questions tagged [casper]

Casper is a security-deposit based economic consensus protocol.

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2answers
2k views

Proof of Stake - Is it risky to stake?

What if a client malfunctions due to the corruption of data isn't it risky to stake? With PoW this is no issue but with PoS this seems to be a real issue with the slasher protocol. I would be worried ...
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3answers
9k views

Will a higher stake make more money in PoS?

Since I'm very new to this I'm just going to assume I'm getting it wrong. But here it goes anyway... The higher my stake, the more money I make. This is my raw understanding of how proof of stake ...
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1answer
2k views

What is delegated proof of stake and why is it not suitable for Ethereum?

Ethereum will switch to Proof Of Stake in some future hard fork called Serenity. For this putpose a new Proof Of Stake protocol called Casper is being developed.[1] However, there are quite a few ...
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1answer
68 views

What are the challenges involved moving Ethereum from POW to POS?

I'm aware of the idea to roll out the POS protocol by using a hybrid model of POS/POW. What are the challenges of such a change? This hybrid model would make mixed adoption(for legacy users and new ...
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2answers
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Casper FFG slashed deposits distribution?

How is the slashed funds distributed upon failing to follow the requirements as a validator?
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2answers
254 views

Method for staking coins in Casper FFG

When Ethereum changes to a PoW/PoS hybrid (Casper FFG), how will the staking process work? I heard that there might be smart-contracts and you need to send your coins to the contract to stake the ...
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1answer
598 views

BFT vs On-chain POW

What significant advantages does BFT provide over On-chain POW solutions and why or why not are they not more commonly used?
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3answers
248 views

Does Proof-of-Stake consensus require a blockchain?

In a proof-of-work blockchain, the validity of the network is ensured by the hashes of each block pointing to the previous block. A "block on its own" would not be very trustworthy and, without all ...
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1answer
29 views

Won't Casper mean that the processing power of the network is reduced?

Something just occurred to me. The whole point of Ethereum is to act as a giant global computer. Currently that computer utilises many thousands of GPUs. When we switch to Casper I will end up mining ...
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3answers
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How does the Casper proof of stake algorithm work?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. What are the details of that algorithm, and how does it compare to previous Proof of Stake consensus ...
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0answers
172 views

Three related hypothetical security flaws in Casper: does the protocol allow them?

Casper attempts to solve the problem of "catestrophic crashes", where validators with more than 1/3rd of the voting weight go offline and thereby stop any more blocks from being validated, by using an ...
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1answer
30 views

I am looking for a recent four part set of articles on Casper

Can somebody give me links to the recent articles on the history and design of casper? I saw a part 3 and a part 4, but don't recall who wrote them and I want to start with part 1 and part 2.
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In Casper, does the block producer also get mining rewards, or only those who bet on the block?

In Casper, validators produce blocks, and then bet on whose block will be added to the state, and those who bet with the consensus are rewarded. Is the block producer also rewarded?
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1answer
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Ethereum Casper block convergence

How does Casper achieve that all validators magically converge to a block without deciding the block deterministacally (stake-grindable)? How is this implemented in the testnet?
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1answer
80 views

Ethereum Casper - Censorship

When 2/3 of the validators censor 1/3 of the validators (by not validating their txs), 1/3 would get slashed heavily and 2/3 would get slashed a bit in the Casper protocol. Isn't it very compelling ...
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1answer
2k views

Speed of Ethereum for real time DApp

Currently the block time is around 17s but the confirmation time is even longer around 2-3 minutes. Moreover, as I understand even if the transactions-per-second are 7 we still need to wait the ...
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146 views

How will casper maintain time between 2 blocks?

In current proof-of-work, there is an artificial time delay introduced because of difficulty. This allows the network to accept transactions that ultimately form the block. Vlad argues that once ...
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0answers
118 views

Who proposes blocks in Ethereum Casper the Friendly Ghost

I am trying to understand how CTFG is supposed to work. The available online blogs provide a fairly high-level overview. What I have understood so far is that validators will bet on the blocks as they ...
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1answer
155 views

Casper PoS - Nodes and code execution?

In current Ethereum, smart contracts are executed by the CPU/RAM of nodes who are rewarded the gas from the transaction. Will this be the same in Casper? Are there any pools for this specific purpose ...
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1answer
262 views

How does interest work in casper?

Based on this answer: https://ethereum.stackexchange.com/a/37419/24310 How does interest work with casper? Is it correct to describe what the validators receive as interest?
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180 views

Scaling ethereum [closed]

I have been looking up scaling issues associated with Ethereum. I have not found any resources that give an easy to understand definition of the problem. I am aware that there are efforts like Raiden, ...
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0answers
265 views

What does Vlad Zamfir mean by 'the fork-choice rule is stateful'?

Does he mean the rule to determine the next blockchain requires knowing the state of currently bonded validators? This “out-of-band authentication only necessarily once” property is what Vitalik ...
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0answers
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Casper versus Proof of Stake on Other Blockchains

I get the impression that work on Ethereum's proof of stake protocol Casper is a tough project. What makes it so that bringing proof of stake to Ethereum is more difficult compared to all the other ...
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2answers
835 views

How does the 'secret chain' catch up with the real chain in the long range attack?

I'm trying to dig deep into Casper and one of the things that keep coming up is the long-range attack in PoS. I understand the attack at a high level - basically you would go back some large amount of ...
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1answer
209 views

What are light node's role in Casper?

So casper testnet is out and I have a few questions! From previous discussions it seems that light nodes cannot be validators. If this is correct, then what will the purpose of light nodes be as ...
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1answer
522 views

Energy Consumption from Casper/PoS

I've seen a lot of articles saying that Casper/PoS will be substantially better in terms of energy efficiency but haven't seen any concrete numbers. How much better will it be? 50x (still really bad), ...
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What will happen to the gas block limit after Casper?

Is there any reason to believe it'll go up or down significantly?
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1answer
2k views

Casper-FFG vs Casper-GHOST-CBC

I find this super-confusing, but there are two consensus algorithms under the name Casper: Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget by Vitalik; Casper the Friendly GHOST (a.k.a. "correct-by-construction") ...
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4answers
622 views

What are the open issues with the Casper proof of stake algorithm?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future release named Serenity. There's a comment that Casper's "basic mechanisms are fairly firmed up now". What are the details of ...
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2answers
5k views

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake?

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake? And how will this vector be mitigated with the Casper Proof-of-Stake implementation?
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1answer
258 views

What will a block look like post Casper?

Currently I think blocks look like [previous block hash + transactions + nonce], such that the hash of all that is less than the difficulty. After Casper what will it look like? I guess there is no ...
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1answer
389 views

How do Casper's validators compare to Dash's masternodes?

Both of these networks are going to have a smaller subset of "privileged" nodes with similar properties (like storing large amounts of currency, receiving part of block rewards). Are there further ...
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1answer
305 views

Will Casper affect transaction prices?

To what extent will Casper affect transaction prices? Seems like it wouldn't affect gas amounts, but that it would lower the gas prices, owing to the lower costs of operating the network.
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145 views

What are transaction costs likely to be after Casper? [closed]

It presently costs X to send a simple transaction. Assuming the price of ether stays constant, what is a theoretical estimate for the new cost of the same sort of transaction after Casper? i.e X/10?
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Casper protocol: is it right?

I'm reading about Casper protocol and the hybrid solution that Ethereum is going to adopt in the first place. Can you tell me if I understand the mechanism well? The hybrid solution initially ...
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1answer
6k views

What is the transaction confirmation time for ERC20 based token? [duplicate]

In case of Bitcoin, it is 10 min. What is the case for ETH or ERC20 based token? And what's the confirmation time change after Casper update?
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2answers
2k views

Ethereum POS economics question about gravitating all ether supply to stake

Please, dispel my doubts about POS, miners rewards and too strong incentives to participate in it that could lead to almost total supply of ether locked in stake. So, we have: Et - total Ether ...
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1answer
3k views

What logic controls Proof of Stake voting?

NOTICE: This question is now outdated; it refers to one of the older plans for the Casper Proof of Stake validation concept (including validators voting on multiple heights at once). The updated (...
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1answer
392 views

ETH vs Tokens price issue [duplicate]

Is there any possibility for one token (e.g. Augur's REP) to become more valuable than the total Ether market cap? If so, how would that be possible? In Security of PoS if/when Assets (Tracked or ...
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2answers
2k views

Why did Ethereum not start with Proof of Stake?

I had been reading up on Proof of Stake and the advantages and disadvantages. As if I am correctly informed, it is planned to change from PoW to PoS in the near future, using Casper. I had also been ...
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Have there been any systems in use that are similar to Vlad Zamfir's consensus-by-bet?

Do prediction markets use a similar betting game where early bets give high rewards, and late bets give lower rewards?
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3answers
37k views

How do miners profit post-PoS, if at all, how will new miners get their start, and who will execute the EVM byte code (and why)?

I've been following the release of Casper/PoS closely, and I'm curious about a few details. How will miners make money (even if GPUs are less valuable)? Are spare compute resources (say RAM, CPU) ...
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0answers
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Does EIP 134 allow a variants on PoS where everything is at stake?

EIP 134 allows a transaction to specify which chain it is occur on. In its original inception, this would be accomplished by specifying a recent block of the desired chain and a number 0-255 that ...
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1answer
5k views

How much ethereum does one need for Proof of Stake?

Is there a minimum to have in order to qualify for this proof of stake?
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375 views

Why is there a limit to number of validators?

In Casper and consensus-by-bet, validators make bets, and converge on a block at each block height, etc. In the Casper PoCs so far, the number of validators at any given block has been limited to 250, ...
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0answers
142 views

In consensus-by-bet, are all bets registered on the chain?

From Vlad: Validators bet independently on blocks at every height (i.e. block number) by assigning it a probability and publishing it as a bet. Through iterative betting, the validators elect ...
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In Casper, theoretically how many validators could participate in consensus-by-bet (at any given block)?

Is the number of validators (at any given block) limited, and what is the theoretical upper limit?
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35 views

What attacks could be performed without a solution to “nothing at stake” (security deposits) [duplicate]

Without security deposits, there is no dis-incentive for signing multiple blocks on multiple chains, and so the validators incentive is to sign off forks when they come up. What attacks would be ...
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0answers
98 views

Difference between security deposit and stake in Casper?

Is the security deposit equal to the amount of staked ETH, or is the deposit a separate thing?
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1answer
423 views

Casper proposal mechanism

I do not understand how the proposal mechanism illutstrated here works. A proposal mechanism is a mechanism that proposes hashes, which the rest of the machinery with PREPARE and COMMIT messages ...