Questions tagged [casper]

Casper is a security-deposit based economic consensus protocol.

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125
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4answers
42k views

Why does Ethereum plan to move to Proof of Stake?

The initial version of Ethereum (Frontier) uses a Proof of Work based consensus algorithm, but I see that there are plans to implement a Proof of Stake based consensus algorithm called "Casper" in a ...
38
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3answers
15k views

How does the Casper proof of stake algorithm work?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. What are the details of that algorithm, and how does it compare to previous Proof of Stake consensus ...
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3answers
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How do miners profit post-PoS, if at all, how will new miners get their start, and who will execute the EVM byte code (and why)?

I've been following the release of Casper/PoS closely, and I'm curious about a few details. How will miners make money (even if GPUs are less valuable)? Are spare compute resources (say RAM, CPU) ...
24
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2answers
18k views

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem?

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem in Proof-of-Stake consensus networks? While I understand what the nothing at stake problem means, I do not really understand the security implications. ...
17
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2answers
3k views

What is casper? [duplicate]

I see that Vitalik and Vlad are working on Casper. As far as I understand, casper is the new POS mining algorithm. Why is it better than bitcoin's POW? I understand it's environmentally friendly, ...
17
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1answer
1k views

How does Casper solve the “Nothing at Stake” issue?

One of the criticisms of proof of stake is that stakers can vote for multiple blockchain forks with only a trivial cost. I believe NXT solves this by not giving out a mining reward, so that the ...
16
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1answer
3k views

What is the difference between Casper and Tendermint

Both are consensus protocols that fall under the category proof of stake. However - they differ in some design goals. Casper favors availability over consistency in comparison to Tendermint. What does ...
13
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1answer
6k views

How many transactions per second can Ethereum currently handle? What changes will allow the network to be able to handle more? [duplicate]

I've been searching for a more precise answer to this question, but I've seen a lot of conflicting information stating that Ethereum can currently handle anywhere from 12-45 transactions per second. ...
13
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1answer
545 views

Are light nodes possible in Casper?

My understanding of light nodes is they need PoW in the block headers. That PoW proves that $x amount of energy has gone into securing that chain. With PoS, the proof that $y is securing the chain ...
13
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1answer
372 views

How do Casper's validators compare to Dash's masternodes?

Both of these networks are going to have a smaller subset of "privileged" nodes with similar properties (like storing large amounts of currency, receiving part of block rewards). Are there further ...
12
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2answers
1k views

In Casper PoS, what is a finalised block?

Vitalik talks about block finalisation here, and Vlad also talks about it here. What is a finalised block? How long does it take to finalise a block? What are the security guarantees of a finalised ...
12
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3answers
9k views

Will a higher stake make more money in PoS?

Since I'm very new to this I'm just going to assume I'm getting it wrong. But here it goes anyway... The higher my stake, the more money I make. This is my raw understanding of how proof of stake ...
10
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2answers
957 views

What is the target block time for Casper?

With PoW, the block time is around 17 seconds. What is the target block time for Casper's PoS?
10
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4answers
3k views

What are the scalability benefits of PoS vs PoW?

This accepted answer claims that one advantage of PoS vs PoW is that some scalability problems can be addressed more easily with PoS What are those scalability problems? What are the scalability ...
10
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1answer
3k views

Where is the updated Ethereum roadmap?

Googling "Ethereum Roadmap" just brings up outdated blog posts. Where can i find the current, updated roadmap?
10
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2answers
4k views

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake?

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake? And how will this vector be mitigated with the Casper Proof-of-Stake implementation?
8
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3answers
10k views

When will Ethereum switch to Proof of Stake so miners can plan to prepare themselves?

There are talks that the switch to PoS could happen this summer but is it too early, or the date is real so should miners already acknowledge that soon enough they will not be contributing as much?
8
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1answer
6k views

When will Ethereum switch to Proof of Stake? [closed]

What is the latest estimation of when will the switch to PoS happen? Last time the question was asked about 6 months ago, the answer was mid-2016, which is just around the corner. https://...
8
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2answers
607 views

How does betting on a block work in Casper?

Betting on a block is betting money that effectively says something like: "I believe that this block has at least a 60% chance of being true." Q1. Once a bet is made, is it possible to change the ...
8
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1answer
383 views

Does more ether = more voting power in Casper?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. However, as nodes are betting on which block will be produced next, does that mean the more ether you ...
7
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2answers
4k views

What is GHOST and what is its relationship to Frontier and Casper?

As high-level as possible without losing important meaning, what's the intuition behind GHOST? How is it currently implemented in Frontier? What will be different with GHOST in Casper?
7
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4answers
589 views

What are the open issues with the Casper proof of stake algorithm?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future release named Serenity. There's a comment that Casper's "basic mechanisms are fairly firmed up now". What are the details of ...
7
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2answers
309 views

Is it possible for Bitcoin to live on the Ethereum Blockchain?

It seems to me that once Casper is fully implemented, the best of both worlds would be for the valuable and scarce BTC token to live on the expedient, efficient Ethereum blockchain. But would this be ...
7
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2answers
2k views

Why did Ethereum not start with Proof of Stake?

I had been reading up on Proof of Stake and the advantages and disadvantages. As if I am correctly informed, it is planned to change from PoW to PoS in the near future, using Casper. I had also been ...
7
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1answer
291 views

Can you (as a node) manually choose what block to bet on in Casper?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. However, as nodes are betting on which block will be produced next, does that mean (as a node) you can ...
7
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1answer
303 views

In Casper, how can a block be finalized if previous blocks are unconfirmed?

As explained in an Ethereum blog post, one consequence of consensus-by-bet is that: a block can remain unconfirmed even when blocks after that block are completely finalized. The given example ...
7
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2answers
892 views

Proof of Stake - Is it risky to stake?

What if a client malfunctions due to the corruption of data isn't it risky to stake? With PoW this is no issue but with PoS this seems to be a real issue with the slasher protocol. I would be worried ...
6
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2answers
751 views

How does the 'secret chain' catch up with the real chain in the long range attack?

I'm trying to dig deep into Casper and one of the things that keep coming up is the long-range attack in PoS. I understand the attack at a high level - basically you would go back some large amount of ...
6
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1answer
2k views

Casper-FFG vs Casper-GHOST-CBC

I find this super-confusing, but there are two consensus algorithms under the name Casper: Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget by Vitalik; Casper the Friendly GHOST (a.k.a. "correct-by-construction") ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Ethereum POS economics question about gravitating all ether supply to stake

Please, dispel my doubts about POS, miners rewards and too strong incentives to participate in it that could lead to almost total supply of ether locked in stake. So, we have: Et - total Ether ...
6
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1answer
808 views

How are block proposals made in Casper?

A blog post says this about block proposals in Casper: A NXT-style random number generator is used to determine who can generate a block at each height; essentially, this involves taking missing ...
6
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1answer
153 views

Incentive to vote early in Casper FFG protocol?

If I understand the Casper FFG protocol correctly, (1) all votes are public, and (2) the optimal voting strategy would be to observe other votes and vote accordingly (see this post, section "The ...
5
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1answer
2k views

What logic controls Proof of Stake voting?

NOTICE: This question is now outdated; it refers to one of the older plans for the Casper Proof of Stake validation concept (including validators voting on multiple heights at once). The updated (...
5
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1answer
126 views

Plausible Liveness on Casper FFG

This is from the Casper FFG document on Arxiv. Is a higher than b? If so how is b the target checkpoint if it is lower? If a' is a descendant of a (which I take means a previous checkpoint) how does ...
5
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1answer
178 views

Deliberate Slashing: Don't slashing and leaking incentivize DDOS attacks on smaller nodes? Won't this centralize POS more than POW, even?

In Ethereum's proposed proof-of-stake algorithm (POS): A traditional node operator can't host a node themselves (e.g. on a home network), someone could just DDOS their node to bring them offline. ...
5
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1answer
1k views

PoW, PoS and transaction conflict resolution. How does it work? Isn't PoS at risk here?

So I am trying to put my head around POS. And I have a question about transaction conflict resolution and whether there is an attack risk here. If I understand correctly how POS works, if there are ...
5
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1answer
368 views

What is the difference between Casper and Algorand?

What is the difference between Casper and Algorand? Casper -- Proof of Stake-Based Finality System overlaying an existing proof of work blockchain Algorand -- Byzantine Consensus Based Protocol and?...
5
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1answer
152 views

Casper betting details

What incentive is there for validators to bet on a block early, rather than just waiting for the rest of the validators to reach consensus first? AFAICT, the reward/penalty is independent of when the ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Casper: will you need to buy the right to be a validator or will it be free?

According to this document: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Xf_iHGI51Lp6nVHPZo0SdUw60-NA6YJUvk2s-eYaxLE citation 1: maxDeposit - the maximum deposit allowed to become a proof of stake ...
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2answers
561 views

What property makes Proof of Stake easier to apply in permissioned blockchains?

There are a number of efforts driving towards the transition from the current proof-of-work towards proof-of-stake (more info here). Meanwhile proof-of-stake is already in use in some permissioned ...
4
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2answers
1k views

When and if ETH converts to PoS who will receive the staking rewards?

For ETH stored on online exchanges will the exchanges receive all staking rewards or will they be passed along to their users that actually own the ETH?
4
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1answer
1k views

Understanding economic finality in PoW and PoS

Before I get into the question I wanted to point out that I am referring to a specific part of a specific article. You don't actually have to read the article to help with the question but it's here ...
4
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1answer
106 views

As of 2018 Sept 21st. When is the scheduled Casper Proof of Stake expected to arrive?

Where can one find updates on Casper POS? I hear its been constantly delayed. When is it expected to arrive? And is there an alpha/beta state where one can test it out now?
4
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2answers
163 views

When a bonded node loses a bet who gets the ETH?

In Casper Proof-of-Stake, a validator needs to be a bonded node: it puts up a security deposit that can be lost if the validator misbehaves. When a bonded node misbehaves, who receives the lost ETH?
4
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2answers
185 views

What happens if demand for bonded validators is greater than 256?

This answer suggests there will be a maximum of 256 bonded validators for Casper. What if 257 nodes want to become bonded validators? Is there a race? What's the consensus mechanism to pick 256 ...
4
votes
1answer
371 views

Casper, Serenity, Constantinople, Ethereum 2.0

I hear alot about the terms: Casper Serenity Constantinople Ethereum 2.0 At some point I thought that all are the same, the next release of Ethereum, but apparently there’s an upcoming fixes patches ...
4
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0answers
162 views

Three related hypothetical security flaws in Casper: does the protocol allow them?

Casper attempts to solve the problem of "catestrophic crashes", where validators with more than 1/3rd of the voting weight go offline and thereby stop any more blocks from being validated, by using an ...
4
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0answers
125 views

How is Casper better than POW against possible government censorship? [closed]

As of now my understanding is that with POW an attack by one or multiple goverments could be orchestrated just by raiding mining farms (which can be easily identified given the electricity bill) and ...
3
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1answer
482 views

Will the processing power of the EVM ever be increased?

From what I understand almost all hash power on the network is used to secure the blockchain, but the processing power of the EVM remains constant even as the hash power of the network increases, and ...
3
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2answers
98 views

Casper FFG slashed deposits distribution?

How is the slashed funds distributed upon failing to follow the requirements as a validator?