Questions tagged [casper]

Casper is a security-deposit based economic consensus protocol.

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124
votes
4answers
42k views

Why does Ethereum plan to move to Proof of Stake?

The initial version of Ethereum (Frontier) uses a Proof of Work based consensus algorithm, but I see that there are plans to implement a Proof of Stake based consensus algorithm called "Casper" in a ...
32
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3answers
37k views

How do miners profit post-PoS, if at all, how will new miners get their start, and who will execute the EVM byte code (and why)?

I've been following the release of Casper/PoS closely, and I'm curious about a few details. How will miners make money (even if GPUs are less valuable)? Are spare compute resources (say RAM, CPU) ...
7
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2answers
4k views

What is GHOST and what is its relationship to Frontier and Casper?

As high-level as possible without losing important meaning, what's the intuition behind GHOST? How is it currently implemented in Frontier? What will be different with GHOST in Casper?
37
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3answers
15k views

How does the Casper proof of stake algorithm work?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. What are the details of that algorithm, and how does it compare to previous Proof of Stake consensus ...
22
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2answers
18k views

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem?

What exactly is the Nothing-At-Stake problem in Proof-of-Stake consensus networks? While I understand what the nothing at stake problem means, I do not really understand the security implications. ...
10
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2answers
4k views

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake?

What is the Long-Range-Attack in Proof-of-Stake? And how will this vector be mitigated with the Casper Proof-of-Stake implementation?
9
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2answers
949 views

What is the target block time for Casper?

With PoW, the block time is around 17 seconds. What is the target block time for Casper's PoS?
11
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2answers
1k views

In Casper PoS, what is a finalised block?

Vitalik talks about block finalisation here, and Vlad also talks about it here. What is a finalised block? How long does it take to finalise a block? What are the security guarantees of a finalised ...
2
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1answer
310 views

How will the number of confirmations for security change with Casper?

How will this answer change when Casper is deployed?
16
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2answers
3k views

What is casper? [duplicate]

I see that Vitalik and Vlad are working on Casper. As far as I understand, casper is the new POS mining algorithm. Why is it better than bitcoin's POW? I understand it's environmentally friendly, ...
12
votes
1answer
539 views

Are light nodes possible in Casper?

My understanding of light nodes is they need PoW in the block headers. That PoW proves that $x amount of energy has gone into securing that chain. With PoS, the proof that $y is securing the chain ...
4
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1answer
361 views

Casper, Serenity, Constantinople, Ethereum 2.0

I hear alot about the terms: Casper Serenity Constantinople Ethereum 2.0 At some point I thought that all are the same, the next release of Ethereum, but apparently there’s an upcoming fixes patches ...
3
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2answers
761 views

How to RLP-encode messages in Solidity

I'm trying to figure out how to interact with the current version of the Casper contract from Solidity. The vote-function in the casper contract takes an array of bytes, which represents the RLP-...
11
votes
3answers
9k views

Will a higher stake make more money in PoS?

Since I'm very new to this I'm just going to assume I'm getting it wrong. But here it goes anyway... The higher my stake, the more money I make. This is my raw understanding of how proof of stake ...
9
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4answers
3k views

What are the scalability benefits of PoS vs PoW?

This accepted answer claims that one advantage of PoS vs PoW is that some scalability problems can be addressed more easily with PoS What are those scalability problems? What are the scalability ...
8
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1answer
6k views

When will Ethereum switch to Proof of Stake? [closed]

What is the latest estimation of when will the switch to PoS happen? Last time the question was asked about 6 months ago, the answer was mid-2016, which is just around the corner. https://...
7
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1answer
291 views

Can you (as a node) manually choose what block to bet on in Casper?

Ethereum plans to move to the Casper proof of stake algorithm in a future version of the network. However, as nodes are betting on which block will be produced next, does that mean (as a node) you can ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Ethereum POS economics question about gravitating all ether supply to stake

Please, dispel my doubts about POS, miners rewards and too strong incentives to participate in it that could lead to almost total supply of ether locked in stake. So, we have: Et - total Ether ...
4
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2answers
553 views

What property makes Proof of Stake easier to apply in permissioned blockchains?

There are a number of efforts driving towards the transition from the current proof-of-work towards proof-of-stake (more info here). Meanwhile proof-of-stake is already in use in some permissioned ...
16
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1answer
1k views

How does Casper solve the “Nothing at Stake” issue?

One of the criticisms of proof of stake is that stakers can vote for multiple blockchain forks with only a trivial cost. I believe NXT solves this by not giving out a mining reward, so that the ...
8
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2answers
603 views

How does betting on a block work in Casper?

Betting on a block is betting money that effectively says something like: "I believe that this block has at least a 60% chance of being true." Q1. Once a bet is made, is it possible to change the ...
6
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1answer
807 views

How are block proposals made in Casper?

A blog post says this about block proposals in Casper: A NXT-style random number generator is used to determine who can generate a block at each height; essentially, this involves taking missing ...
4
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2answers
161 views

When a bonded node loses a bet who gets the ETH?

In Casper Proof-of-Stake, a validator needs to be a bonded node: it puts up a security deposit that can be lost if the validator misbehaves. When a bonded node misbehaves, who receives the lost ETH?
2
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1answer
55 views

Casper slashes nodes with poor network connection?

Moving from PoW to PoS sounds reasonable as it's more environmentally friendly and costs less to compensate miners. However, I heard Casper will slash uncles to disincentives them from forming a ...
2
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2answers
237 views

What is the network overhead of Casper?

In Bitcoin the PoW mining has very little overhead in terms of bandwidth. The miners simply need to produce the PoW, which I believe is 32 bytes per 10 minutes. In Casper I understand every validator ...
1
vote
1answer
148 views

Who can participate in Casper?

From what I understand, non-validators will feel benefits from the change to casper. However, is it only validators that can actually participate in Casper? Is it correct that if you have etehreum in ...