Questions tagged [blocks]

This tag is for questions dealing with the structure of blocks.

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Why does the Polygon PoS Chain Average Gas Limit (per block) keep changing?

Most EVM chains have a fixed gas limit and gas target per block. For Ethereum, it's 30M and 15M: https://etherscan.io/chart/gaslimit For Polygon, the gas limit seems to change every single block. How ...
1 vote
1 answer
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What is the underlying mechanism behind empty slots in Ethereum?

Ethereum docs says: However, occasionally validators might be offline when called to propose a block, meaning slots can sometimes go empty. What happens when the randomly chosen validator is offline?...
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1 vote
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Why do some mined transactions not contain a 'to' parameter?

Sometimes there are transactions inside a block that are missing the 'to' field. How can there be a mined transaction without a to field? What happens to this transaction? eg. one of the transactions ...
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1 answer
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How to get the exact block number in Hardhat deploy script?

I have written a code in hardhat deploy script to fetch the exact block number at which the contract has been executed, but it usually returns the block next to the original. Any idea how to get the ...
0 votes
0 answers
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How is the relationship between parent_hash and hash ensured?

I found this schema of block. I wonder how to make relationship betweeen hash and parent_hash. In my head, it whould be like this(Postgres). CREATE TABLE block ( hash VARCHAR(8) PRIMARY KEY, ...
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1 answer
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Block timestamp

Require(block.timestamp + 1 days - 1 hours <= numbers [14] , "Must lock longer than x") ; Require(number [14] < 9999999999, "Avoid potential timestamp overflow"); Locktime = ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Are uncle/ommer blocks still possible after the merge?

Uncle blocks were produced before the merge when two miners found a solution at the same time and following blocks were appended to only one of them. So my question is, are uncle/ommer blocks still ...
1 vote
2 answers
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How to access the difficulty of an older block from within a smart contract?

Is it possible to access properties of an older block from within a smart contract (e.g. difficulty, timestamp etc.)?
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1 answer
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How can I get a large amount of Ethereum transactions in a database without running my own node? Does a database like this exist already?

I am doing research into Ethereum transactions and I simply need a database of 1000 transactions or just about 10 blocks worth of transactions. What is the easiest and fastest way to acquire this? Do ...
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0 answers
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Is there a way to determine the state of a block?

I am interested in looking at trends of missing/skipped blocks over time. I haven't found an API that provides a way to get the state of a block, but I'm sure there must be one. I have found on ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Coinbase transaction on ethereum

So, I learned that in bitcoin, a coinbase transaction is the first transaction that gets created in the block and it is used to give block rewards to the miner that mined the block. I was curious if ...
0 votes
1 answer
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What is the difference between Relay and Builder post Merge in Ethereum?

I was listening to an episode of Bankeless where they were talking about things coming up, post merge. In that episode they mentioned block builders and relayers. The context they mention it was ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Broadcasting a transaction to be included in the next block

Since the merge we have predictable block times of around 12-13 seconds. I want to broadcast my transaction in a way that it is highly likely to get included in the next mined block, e.g. the block ...
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1 answer
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Where are the docs on transaction filtering?

Say we have a user that tries to make a fake transaction. Where are the docs regulating how it is checked before it is fitted into block (pre and post PoS consensus merge )?
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3 votes
1 answer
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Where are the blockchain transactions stored?

I'm studying the block structure in several blockchains like Bitcoin or Ethereum. When I started to read about blockchain, many sites and books said that transactions are stored in blocks. Ok, I got ...
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Calculating TPS with gas

As part of a project I need to get an estimated TPS value for a handful of Blockchains. Can you calculate TPS from gas alone? for example: TPS = (Gas Limit / Gas used) / block time
2 votes
2 answers
100 views

Are Ethereum blocks flexible in terms of size or are they capped?

Many blockchains have block size limits. But I am confused when it comes to Ethereum. On one hand, I read that its block size is flexible. But on the other hand, I strongly suspect there must be a ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Can we predict the blockhash of next block in Ethereum [duplicate]

After reading this SWC https://swcregistry.io/docs/SWC-120 I was curious how we can predict the blockhash of the next block. Because in the second example, it is saying the contract is vulnerable to ...
0 votes
1 answer
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How to decode and update input data of a specific transaction?

So, I've decoded the input-data and fetched it via block-hash, Now what I want to do is that, I want to update the input data and post that updated input data back to the same transaction of the same ...
1 vote
0 answers
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Output full block data

I am looking to get an example block's full data so I can examine what information is available within it. The main questions I am looking to answer are: Is there actual tx info within the block or ...
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0 votes
0 answers
30 views

Get block from timestamp at given times

I'm looking for a way to find the block corresponding to a given timestamp; for a graph where you can see your balances per day in a graph. I tried to make it but my provider/node was using too much ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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PBS - How & where do block builders submit their blocks?

With the merge and the change to PoS, there will also be a shift towards PBS. As far as i have researched, any block builder can build blocks with transactions from the mempool. How are these blocks ...
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0 answers
10 views

How to target the first block of a new hour?

Struggling with the issue of targeting the first block of a new hour on ETH mainnet. I tried to query the latest block timestamp and add +15 seconds to predict if the next block will be the one I'm ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How wallets sync blocks after consensus happen

i know that when user submits a transaction that transaction is then sent to all their peers by following this protocol https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/%C3%90%CE%9EVp2p-Wire-Protocol. Miners ...
1 vote
0 answers
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Ethereum yellow paper is-sibling property

I'm reading the yellow paper and having some problems understanding equation 169 from here - also below: s(U,H) = (P(H) = P(U) ∧ H != U ∧ U !∈ B(H)_U) I can understand the first two conditions: The ...
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How is it possible to sign and attest a block within 12 seconds

I am digging deep into understanding the consensus layer specification for ethereum when it has moved to proof of stake. I understand that time is divided into slots of 12 seconds, and 32 of such ...
0 votes
1 answer
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How do I check if a block contains a transaction for a token like USDC or USDT

I'm exploring Blocks & Transactions at the moment. I can see in the blocks there's transactions which show what addresses sent ETH and where to. However, I'm wondering how to tell if these are for ...
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1 answer
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Does different hardware spec affect the number of transactions a miner included in a block?

I am a newbie so any insight would be appreciated! The number of transactions included in a block could be determined by a number of factors: The gas price set by the miner who validated that block. ...
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1 answer
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How determine is the hash finalized?

For some reason, I am require to store the hash to database. I would like to know is there any criteria to determine that the hash is finalize? For example, Block #15000000 have hash value of ...
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How to estimate the transaction size of a Blockchain (Ethereum) from the given data?

The following is the data given for different blocks; The 'size' column here refers to the block size. The aim is to estimate the transaction size for each block and compare that with the block size. ...
3 votes
2 answers
207 views

The Merge: should I stick with jsonrpc or move to eth api's?

I'm trying to understand what happens after the merge, what should my frontend clients do. Should they stick with the execution layer (EL) jsonrpc (they'll still have access to the latest transactions,...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How Uncles (Ommers) Hash include in headers?

I'm confused with the definition of uncle block. I read every articles and they say basically uncle block is a block that valid but lose the race to main blockchain. All the blocks' hashes that lose ...
3 votes
1 answer
138 views

Hardhat local transactions don't process

I'm new to hardhat. I am playing around with the local hardhat accounts, which are all funded for 10k ETH. All I want to do is send some ETH from 1 account to another, and check the second account's ...
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1 vote
2 answers
162 views

How does a node rollback?

I've been trying to learn Ethereum's mechanisms for a little while, but there is a thing I still don't understand and it is how nodes switch to the correct state when solving a fork. As far as I ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Does the Ethereum world state stored into DB every time when the block is mined?

The Ethereum block header stores the root hash of the world state trie, Does this means every time the state of world state is copied into levelDB for every block mined? Thanks for your answers.
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Block propagation delay

I have some doubts related to block propagation time. In a network built with Hyperledger Besu, I have 4 AWS machines, 3 in Paris and 1 more in Oregon. The block propagation times are crazy, like 2 ...
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0 votes
0 answers
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How to get the transactions that have logs from a getBlockByNumber call?

I am interested in getting all the transactions from an Ethereum block that have emitted events. Would it be possible to get this information from the individual transaction from a getBlockByNumber ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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What is the aggregation_bits in beacon chain's Attestation?

The beacon chains Attestation data structure has an aggregation_bits class Attestation(Container): aggregation_bits: Bitlist[MAX_VALIDATORS_PER_COMMITTEE] data: AttestationData signature: ...
1 vote
0 answers
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Block capacity - Hyperledger Besu

Good afternoon, I am trying to perform a transaction capacity test on my network with Hyperledger Besu with 4 validator nodes and a time per block of 4seconds. I have created a script with NodeJS that ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How to store contract state on multiple blocks?

Eth blocks have a clear block size and gas limit (of 30,000,000). Some contract states must require more memory than the defined block size, right? Now my question: can the contract state be saved on ...
0 votes
1 answer
129 views

Speed up Frontrun Bot

I've made a frontrun bot for the Binance Smart Chain. It's working fine, but just for 50% of all transactions.. In the other 50% the is missing the transaction by 1 block.. Example is below My ...
0 votes
0 answers
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What is the difference in block mining between bitcoin and ethereum?

The following video https://andersbrownworth.com/blockchain/ has a nice example of how the mining process works on bitcoin. It shows that you need to find a nonce that, together with the data of the ...
0 votes
1 answer
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How to include a transaction in a selected block/or at particular time

There is this particular function of the project which is required to be triggered by someone on BSC blockchain manually at a particular time to execute certain functions. A person who gets to the ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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How do miners choose what transactions to include first in the block (after London)?

I have read Does using a very high gas limit somehow get your transactions executed slower? and How transactions are selected by the miners? My main question is the same, how do miners include ...
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In Go Ethereum private chain what is the maximum limit of number of transactions in a single block

What is maximum limit of transaction packaging in single block ? Can it be increased ? If yes how ?
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1 answer
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how to tackle block gas limit to send large data file as transaction on ethereum

I want to send ethereum blockchain a file approx 39KB. The file is like array generated by python code. I dont want to use IPFS and oracle. Is this file exceed block gas limit? if yes, then can i ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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Why geth fast sync or light sync does not get the latest highest block

I am running geth "light" mode: geth --syncmode "fast" console. I have the following problem. The highest block is always be 13773036, which is created at 3 days ago: web3.eth....
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1 answer
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How do I get the PoW nonce of a specific block in solidity?

This question doesn't have an answer that shows how to get the PoW nonce for a specific block internally from within Solidity. From my understanding in Ethereum nonce is used for an account's tx ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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Is the state of the ethereum blockchain changed with each transaction or with each block?

Assume we have two transactions A and B which are put into a block by a miner (first A then B). Will both transactions be executed with the state of the previous block or will transaction B be ...
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1 vote
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What factors exactly affect the speed, depth and range of scanning the mempool?

There is zero quality information available on that topic anywhere, for obvious reasons. If there is however somebody willing to share, whether from experience or purely technical understanding of all ...
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