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This tag is for questions dealing with the structure of blocks.

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16 views

Why did the Status.im decided to accept deposits ONLY starting at a certain network block?

I was reading about the Status.im project & its ICO launch process. There are pros & cons regarding their methodology of launching the crowdsale. Somewhere I read that they decided to accept ...
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0answers
13 views

Ethereum - Mapping mining operations to code

The image (not mine) below describes the Ethereum state tries and their role in block mining. My intention is to connect the operations with the technology stack of Ethereum. This is assuming that a ...
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1answer
36 views

How the blocks and tries are stored

Newbie here! I still not sure if I understood how some structures of Ethereum are physically stored (assuming Geth implementation) State Trie: only one off-chain Merkle Patricia Tries stored using ...
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0answers
38 views

What does total number of blocks per day mean in Etherscan?

I tried to figure out what does total number of blocks per day means here and on the Internet, but i failed. For example, the number of blocks on 26 Aug is 5947 [here https://etherscan.io/chart/blocks]...
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1answer
29 views

Why are timestamps stored in a uint (256 bit) when they would fit in a uint64?

A (signed) 64 bit timestamp can store a date much larger than the age of the universe. On many platforms this would be a micro-optimization, but in the context of Ethereum, we want to squeeze every ...
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1answer
56 views

Block time and confirmation time

I have been reading in different papers and comments these two concepts and I would like to know the difference between them(if there is, sometimes it is a bit confusing). I understand that the block ...
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0answers
28 views

Why is my transaction not included into blocks with smaller gas prices in them?

I created a transaction with gas price 1.1 GWEI. It has been pending for 3 hours, and yet - during just the last 75 blocks - several 1 GWEI transactions have been included. In other words, gas price ...
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0answers
23 views

How to get unconfirmed transactions of an erc20 token which are not included in any block

Is there any way to find unconfirmed transaction which are not included in any block.i am currently using following etherscan api for getting all transaction list and then calculating confirmation ...
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0answers
19 views

What is a pivot block in ethereum?

i was exploring ethereum codebase and noticed it has been mentioned in so many places about pivot block. I couldn't get a definition on what it exactly means. Could someone explain me what considered ...
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0answers
11 views

How the default block in Parity is set

How function setting default block (going back in history) in parity is implemented looking from algorthmic side?
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2answers
76 views

Basic Blockchain Implementation: how is the blockchain on a given node “synced” with that on another node?

Here's my understanding of the execution flow of blockchain: Consider two nodes, node1 and node2. Let's say there are 10 users on node1. They're making transactions, but none of these are actually ...
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1answer
33 views

How to get erc20 contract deploy time / block number

I am building a framework for ERC20 tokens. Aim is to scan all events (Transfer and Approve) generated by ERC20 contract, for which I am using web3.js getPastEvents. I have set the toBlock to web3....
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249 views

Ethereum Blockchain Size calculation from Etherscan

I was looking into Etherscan.io charts of Ethereum Block Count and Ethereum Average Block Size. Both of them have the data since 07/30/2015 and if one multiply both time-series (Ex. 07/30/2015 - 644 ...
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22 views

Ethereum blocks

I want to know Ethereum bloc structure.In the case of a bit coin block, the beginning of the block is a magic byte, 4 bytes, followed by block size, 4 bytes, followed by a block header, 80 bytes, ...
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0answers
29 views

Ethereum raw block specific structure [duplicate]

I want to know Ethereum raw block specific structure like this picture(ex_magic bytes, size,tx_count etc.).any suggestions are welcomed.Thanks in advance
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1answer
20 views

Couldn't reach block gas limit

When i try to send a lot of transaction, every block looks like only use half of its gas limit. How can i make block to use all its gas limit until it can't handle more transaction?
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1answer
27 views

Can I set the block size in genesis block by puppeth?

Found the block size is set to 30K in genesis block. How can I modify this value to 100K or 1M by puppeth?
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1answer
15 views

I have done simple data transaction on ropsten, it's stll increasing blocks confirmation

Why there are so many block confirmations in small transaction? How blocks are working while transaction?
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2answers
43 views

All my blocks has deleted

I have a private network for testing. My problem is when ever I stop running geth network, all of my mined blocks are gone. I run like geth --datadir "ethereum/node1" --port 30301 --networkid 1234 --...
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0answers
13 views

how to check if a block has a transaction to an address only by using the block header

Question is self explanatory. How can I check if a block has a transaction to or from an address only by using the block header? Question is prompted by this comment - How to explore all ...
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1answer
47 views

Transaction receiving ether from a contract address

Are transactions sending ether from contract addresses to normal addresses listed in block.transactions or are they not trivial to detect? If not in block.transactions than how to detect?
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1answer
22 views

What is saved on every block on Ethereum?

In Bitcoin every block has the information about the transaction (A sends money to B, C to D etc). And everytime a new transaction (someone sends money to another address) is sent, the miners will ...
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0answers
42 views

Showing block confirmations on a user transaction, best practices?

I'm working on a site that allows users to deploy smart contracts via MetaMask. Basically they customize it, it gets compiled, and then the user deploys it by via a MetaMask transaction. I would like ...
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1answer
42 views

Examples of light-client interactions to extract Merkle proofs?

I'd be grateful for pointers to working examples of interacting with the geth/parity light-client protocols. I'm particularly interested in working code which shows how to extract the Merkle proof ...
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1answer
25 views

Uploading big contract to the Ethereum blockchain

As far as I understand, there is a limit on the block size. But what if I want to upload a large contract that exceeds the blocksize? Will it not be allowed?
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1answer
52 views

Why is that the 'blocks count' is always in multiples of 192?

I'm running light node client for rinkeby using command: geth --rinkeby --syncmode=light --rpc --rpcapi personal,db,net,eth,web3 The terminal runs continuously and I don't quit it when I close the ...
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1answer
303 views

Why is there block gas limit?

Why is there block gas limit? Should it just be the sum of gas limit used by each transactions inside the block? Why do we need an extra field for it instead of calculate it?
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2answers
456 views

How do I get the latest block using etherscan api?

I'm trying to get the latest block (it's height) using Ethereum Developer APIs of etherscan. For example, I can get it from blockcypher using the following URL: https://api.blockcypher.com/v1/eth/...
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2answers
121 views

Ethereum blockchain node & block terminology

I was studying about the basic blockchain terminology and got confused the point of node & block. In some links, both seem similar whereas in some both explained differently. I don't exactly know ...
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0answers
34 views

What precisely classifies an off-chain block as a fork?

I am looking for validation (or invalidation) of my assumption of what strictly counts as a fork in Ethereum. If you start filters to multiple ETH nodes at the same time, you will very often see 2 or ...
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1answer
14 views

Can the recipient of a block reward spend the funds in the same block?

From my understanding, when a new block is mined, the coinbase address's balance is incremented by the block reward amount. If this address had a zero balance before the block was mined and the block ...
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1answer
30 views

Latest block of multiple mining nodes

Lets say I have a private chain with 3 nodes (all mining) A, B and C. I want to get the latest block of my chain. I connect to node A and get this information with getBlock("latest"). Lets imagine ...
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2answers
120 views

Is a block number unique or does it change if the block becomes uncle? Does the transaction hash include a block hash as input?

Is a block number unique or do I need to save block hash to identify a block? Does transaction hash include a block hash as input?
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0answers
126 views

Unexpected behavior with `block.timestamp` in truffle test

I am doing some experiments with block.timestamp(which is now's alias). I wrote some code to see if block.timestamp really represents the timestamp of the last mined block. From the documentation: ...
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0answers
16 views

What exactly do full nodes verify in the block? [duplicate]

What exactly do full nodes verify in the blocks they get (what fields are important for its checks)?
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1answer
30 views

Is there another purpose for ether besides buying gas?

Were ether coins invented only in order to buy gas? Or can I trade it too (like in bitcoin) ? thank you
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2answers
148 views

What does ethereum's blockchain look like?

What does Ethereum's blockchain looks like? Are there only transactions of the states' changes, or are the accounts in every block? Thank you
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2answers
29 views

Block immutability

I am working on a blockchain learning project and i have a general question about block immutability. I know that when a block data is altered the chain becomes invalid am wondering what happens if I ...
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1answer
81 views

Web3.js function(s) to help determine the block numbers inside a date range?

I just learned today that you can query past events using the Web3.js 1.0.0 getPastEvents() function. That function supports filtering via the fromBlock and toBlock call parameters, so you can limit ...
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0answers
47 views

How to determine whether block is orphaned?

I've been working on a high stakes contract, which is deployed using the web3 v1.0 library. An important condition for robustness is ensuring the contract has been confirmed 12 blocks prior (at the ...
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1answer
25 views

How can I use geth to browse through the blocks in a local testnet?

I have installed a local Ethereum testnet and I need to browse the blockchain to search for some information without using any smart contract. How can I do that?
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63 views

Get highest block number when --syncmode=fast

I have an utility that scan blocks back to obtain ranges of block in the last hour/day/month. I In order to do so I have to know the latest block to start the scan. Unfortunately this information is ...
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1answer
241 views

Given a block number, how do I find the block hash using Nethereuem?

Using Nethereum, I would like to get the block hash given a block number (i.e. block height).
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1answer
304 views

How Exactly is Smart Contract Validation Performed?

I have yet to find a coherent explanation of how a smart contract - that potentially can have complex interactions with other smart contracts - is actually validated. Please no hand waving here. What ...
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1answer
34 views

Where are blockchain environmental globals stored?

Where are contract globals like msg.sender and block.number stored? It is in memory or storage?
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0answers
68 views

Uncle blocks and their Relationship to Chain Size

How much do uncle blocks affect the overall chain size? Is the amount of added security they provide for the chain comparable to how much extra data they add to the chain? If, for some reason, all ...
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1answer
154 views

Ethereum's block times are under 10 seconds compared to most other coins which are in minutes. Why and How?

Ethereum's blocktimes is under 10 seconds but other coins like BTC, LTC, and others are usually in minutes. How does ethereum solve the problems to why those other blocktimes are in minutes? Basically ...
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1answer
427 views

Why are there so many empty blocks?

Within the first 4 million blocks, I found that a significant fraction of them are empty. If miners are rewarded for writing transactions, wouldn't be in their best interests to at least partially ...
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1answer
70 views

I have some question about Smart Contract [closed]

Where is the Smart Contract Data stored? How does it get activated, as every contract has a logical outcome? What happens to the block or the transaction in which the smart contract has been concluded?...
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3answers
43 views

Question on the security of forks

Reading the whitepaper of Ethereum I came up with the following questions on forks. Let me explain: Lets say that I send 1 ETHER to an address A1 to buy something and this transaction gets logged on ...