Contract-Orientated Programming - also called Design by Contract (DbC) - is a software engineering paradigm aimed at making software more reliable.
"Design by contract (DbC), also known as contract programming,
programming by contract and design-by-contract programming, is an
approach for designing software."
The "Contract" part of the name has (confusingly) nothing to do with smart contracts.
Further, it isn't tied to a particular language, nor a particular language type, rather it's a methodology and approach to writing code.
(There's the related "Condition-Orientated Programming" that Gavin Wood wrote about, here. Again, this is a methodology rather than syntax or language trait, but that article does give a walk-through of how it can be applied to Solidity.)