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For reference: Ethereum Mining - Number 5

Where does the certificate for the newly created block get broadcasted, so the nodes can verify it? As it states the new unconfirmed transactions first get broadcasted to all nodes and they will put it into the Mempool. But where do the miners broadcast the new blocks to?

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But where do the miners broadcast the new blocks to?

Any other nodes in the network that they are connected to - their peer nodes.

Anyone running a client node and/or mining can view a list of their connected peers by running one of the following commands:

  • For the Geth client: admin.peers
  • For the Parity/OpenEthereum client: parity_netPeers RPC method (unsure of the console command)

Note that a node can't connect to all other nodes in the network. See At any given time, how many nodes is my node connected to? As the number of nodes in the network increases, will communication between them be faster?, which gives a run-down of the P2P discovery protocol, and Kademlia-like routing that the network uses.

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