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Lets say I'm a new node on the Ethereum network, I download a world state of 500 blocks ago and I download the blockchain from that point to present (500 blocks). Can I verify that the world state I've downloaded is accurate/untampered?

To give a small comparison with Bitcoin: in Bitcoin this is impossible. To verify a downloaded UTXO-state, one NEEDS the full chain starting with the genesis block (initial block download).

I would like to know why it cannot be verified or why it can be verified.

Please also say whether your answer is about Ethereum 1.0 or Ethereum 2.0

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In Ethereum 1.0 each block has the root of the state. If the state built at block N matches the root stored in the block the state is good. Validating the block's chain to the genesis should make sure the chain is valid.

But Ethereum 1.0 is a PoW chain so there's a non-zero probability the block N has been replaced by another with a larger proof of work.

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