3

If I start a node with a random network id and a custom data directory, I can create an account and start mining.

What I expected after starting the miner is that it won't be able to mine any blocks since there are no other nodes who are submitting transactions.

But, when I started the miner, it started to mine blocks continuously.

So, what does these blocks contain? How can a block be mined without any transactions?

2

the blocks aren't mined just to include the transactions but also to generate new coins, i suggest you to read this discussion

Why does ethereum creates a new block,without even a single transaction?

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