I've been able to run truffle tests successfully using TypeScript, but when it comes to migration, I get stuck.

1) My current setup:


    "compilerOptions": {
      "target": "es5",                          
      "module": "commonjs",                    
      "lib": ["es6"],                     
      "allowJs": true,
      "outDir": "build",                          
      "rootDir": "src",
      "strict": true,         
      "noImplicitAny": true,
      "esModuleInterop": true,
      "resolveJsonModule": true,
      "types": ["@types/node", "@types/chai", "@types/mocha"],
      "typeRoots": ["./node_modules/@types", "./types"],


  files: true,

2) Migration files:


const Migrations = artifacts.require("Migrations");

module.exports = function (deployer) {


module.exports = require("./2_deploy_contracts.ts");


const Fallback = artifacts.require('Fallback');

module.exports = async (
  deployer: Truffle.Deployer,
  network: string,
  accounts: string[]
) => deployer.deploy(Fallback);

3) Problem:

I am using an intermediate file 2_deploy_contracts.js that is calling 2_deploy_contracts.ts, since Truffle apparently is ignoring the ts migration files.

Problem is that some types are not defined when trying to deploy the contracts:

$ truffle deploy --network development --reset

Error description:

migrations/2_deploy_contracts.ts:10:18 - error TS2304: Cannot find name 'artifacts'.

10 const Fallback = artifacts.require('Fallback');

migrations/2_deploy_contracts.ts:13:13 - error TS2503: Cannot find namespace 'Truffle'.

13 deployer: Truffle.Deployer,

Any idea on how to define types for artifacts and Truffle, or a workaround to run the migration files with TypeScript successfully?

  • This does not solve your problem, but there is another newer smart contract development framework called Hardhat that is TypeScript first: hardhat.org/guides/typescript.html It has 100% feature parity with Truffle and exceeds Truffle in many areas. Commented Mar 14, 2021 at 11:24
  • 1
    Thanks for the suggestion @MikkoOhtamaa. I've actually heard quite a good feedback about this framework, so will have to give a try. Commented Mar 14, 2021 at 12:06
  • @SergiJuanati I want to echo Mikko's suggestion. Hardhat is written in TypeScript, and is meant to be used by TypeScript users. Pro tip: start from my Solidity template, which bundles a lot of useful TypeScript-related utilities, such as TypeChain. Commented Dec 5, 2021 at 12:14

1 Answer 1


You need to generate the types using typechain and inject the variable from 2_deploy_contracts.js

npx typechain --target=truffle-v5 'build/contracts/*.json'
module.exports = require("./2_deploy_contracts.ts")(artifacts);


module.exports = (artifacts: Truffle.Artifacts) => {
  return async (
    deployer: Truffle.Deployer,
    network: string,
    accounts: string[]
  ) => {

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