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I'm researching the cost of serving old blocks to new nodes that need to synchronize and download the whole blockchain. I can indirectly estimate the bandwidth consumed to serve old blocks, if I know how many new nodes join/leave the network per month. For simplicity, I will can assume that each of the new nodes needs to download the full blockchain, and each node that leaves will not come back.

The more direct way is to instrument a geth node to measure the bandwidth dedicated to serving old block requests, but nobody seems to have done it while publishing this information.

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There is no a complete registry in where you can find such information, but using the following sources maybe you can calculate or estimate the number of nodes per month. Probably you can code an script to know the total number of nodes.

Ethereum Node Tracker has some interesting stats that you could find useful, but the next API request provides the Total Nodes Count:

{
  "status": "1",
  "message": "OK-Missing/Invalid API Key, rate limit of 1/5sec applied",
  "result": {
    "UTCDate": "2021-03-01",
    "TotalNodeCount": "8359"
  }
}

More information about Etherscan Ethereum Developer API here.

Another option is the Node Count History from ethernodes.org. But I don't know if there is a way to export the data.

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