If an Ethereum wallet address was created using MetaMask
It doesn't appear so, at least during creation. (You can verify this by watching for network traffic during the creation process.)
can the IP address of the wallet's owner be logged or uncovered somehow?
By default Metamask uses Infura. When submitting transactions, traffic routed via Infura will contain the usual HTTP headers - which will create a specific fingerprint of the browser being used - as well as the source IP address. I believe they use some of this information to rate-limit their services and prevent abuse.
If we can't find out the IP address, does the company running MetaMask log that information somehow?
As above, probably for a short period of time for rate limiting. Not really possible to answer this without asking them.
Could they tie IP addresses to wallet addresses? They could, but such things can be easily fooled (e.g. Tor, VPNs, etc.). (Even without trying: GeoIP is bullshit.) I'd also speculate that anyone doing anything particularly illegal - if that's why you're asking - wouldn't be using a centralised service like Infura (via MM) - they'd be running their own node, and creating and managing their own wallets.