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From a point of view of a developer: what is it that allows Ethereum process a larger amount of transactions per second than Bitcoin can? Is it more optimized polished code? Is it something on a more fundamental level that doesn't have to do with code but with architecture of the blockchain?

The question is about both versions 1.0 and 2.0

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The performance of bitcoin is limited by the frequency of block generation - an average of about 10 minutes and the maximum block size, which can now be up to 2 MB, which roughly corresponds to a maximum of 6000 transactions. Accordingly, its performance is about 10 tpc. The public Ethereum now has about 20 tps. So, there is no particular advantage.

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  • The performance of bitcoin is limited by the frequency of block generation - what's the frequency limited by? Jan 20 at 10:14
  • This is a purely configurational limitation - on the one hand, it ensures the stability of the network synchronization, on the other hand, the economy inherent in the concept of the Bitcoin project.
    – Mad Jackal
    Jan 20 at 10:46
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Is it something on a more fundamental level that doesn't have to do with code but with architecture of the blockchain?

Yes.

Average current block time:

  • Ethereum: ~13 seconds
  • Bitcoin: ~10-11 minutes

(Block times are by design, set in the protocols. There's some variation, but generally currently hovering around these values.)

Average current block size:

(Again, variable. These are the current averages. Relative block sizes are by design and can fluctuate within certain limits.)

Calculated data throughput:

  • Ethereum: 10.8 MB/hour
  • Bitcoin: 7.8 MB/hour

Average current transaction size (variable):

Given these current average values, and noting that they can vary, the current ball-park transaction throughput can be calculated as:

  • Ethereum: ~108,000 / hr ==> ~30 tps (1observed data is a lower tps, as not all transactions are basic 21,000 gas transfers)
  • Bitcoin~: ~7800 / hr ==> ~2.2 tps (generally matches this data)

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